Saturday, July 30, 2011

Badshah Khan

Nonviolent Soldier of Islam

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Nonviolent Soldier of Islam: Badshah Khan, a man to match his mountains
Ghaffar Khan with Mahatma Gandhi (cover of 1998 edition)‎
Author(s) Eknath Easwaran
Language English; later translated into Arabic,[1] Indonesian,[2] Italian,[3][4] Korean,[5] and Turkish[6]
Genre(s) Pushtuns - biography; Politicians - Pakistan - Biography
Publisher Nilgiri Press; others
Publication date 1984; 1999; others
Pages 274 (1999); 240 (1984)
ISBN 1888314001

Nonviolent Soldier of Islam is a biography of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan (1890-1988), an ally of Gandhi's in the Indian independence movement. Originally written by Eknath Easwaran in English, foreign editions have also been published in Arabic[1] and several other languages.[2][3][4][5][6][7] The book was originally published in the US in 1984 as A Man to Match His Mountains: Badshah Khan, nonviolent soldier of Islam. A second edition was published in 1999 with the title Nonviolent soldier of Islam: Badshah Khan, a man to match his mountains. Both editions include an afterword by Timothy Flinders. The 1999 US edition contains a new foreword by Easwaran, and an enlarged section of photographs of Khan. The book has been reviewed in magazines,[8][9] newspapers,[10][11][12][13] and professional journals.[14] The book inspired the making of the 2008 film The Frontier Gandhi: Badshah Khan, a Torch for Peace.[15]



[edit] Topics covered

Arabic edition (1987), published by the Palestinian Center for the Study of Nonviolence.[1]

Both US editions of Nonviolent Solder are divided into four major parts. Parts one through three tell the story of Khan's life up to Indian independence in 1947. Part four, by Flinders, contains an afterword that describes Khan's life after 1947, and also contains a chronology, as well as a glossary, bibliography, index, maps, and extensive notes on sources.

[edit] Reviews and influence

Reviews have appeared in the New York Post,[13] the Washington Post,[10] the Christian Science Monitor,[11] the Los Angeles Times,[12] The New Yorker,[8] and Frontline (India).[9] In 1985, the Washington Post stated that "Eknath Easwaran's great achievement is telling an American audience about an Islamic practitioner of pacifism at a moment when few in the West understand its effectiveness and fewer still associate it with anything Islamic."[10] A year later, after Badshah Khan had won the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honor, the same paper again quoted from the book:

"Easwaran writes of the myth that the British were civilized oppressors. In the 1930s and '40s under British tyranny, the 'Pathans had to endure mass shootings, torture, the destruction of their fields and homes, jail, flogging and humiliations. Khan himself spent 15 years in British prisons. But the Pathans remained nonviolent and stood unmoved -- suffering and dying in large numbers to win their freedom.'... Easwaran believes that 'were Khan's example better known, the Western world, as well as Muslims caught in the web of violence all over the Middle East, might come to recognize that the highest religious values of Islam are deeply compatible with a nonviolence that has the power to resolve great conflicts.'"[16]

In the journal History Compass, a review of resources for teaching about Afghanistan and Pushtu populations, stated that Nonviolent Soldier of Islam was a "highly readable book for the popular market [that] incorporates some of the clearest discussions of an Islamic version of something akin to liberation theology.... its explicitly Gandhian perspective might serve as a useful counterpoint to colonial perspectives" (pp. 548-549).[14]

In late 2001, the book was discussed in Whole Earth magazine, which stated that "Perhaps no time is more apt than now to study the life of Abdul Ghaffar Khan."[17] The book was also reviewed in Yes! Magazine,[18] and elsewhere.[19][20][21]

The publisher quoted Mubarak Awad, director of the Palestinian Centre for the Study of Nonviolence in Jerusalem, as stating that "This book is a must for every Muslim. The life of Khan can change and will challenge many readers in the Middle East."[22]

In late 2001, the book was reviewed in Frontline (India), and described as "crisply written, expertly organised and gripping.... [Easwaran's] subtle grasp of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan's non-violent vision of humanity makes this a very exceptional and special book."[9] The reviewer, who stated that "between 1969 and 1988 I was in his [Khan's] presence many times," noted that

Ghaffar Khan with Mahatma Gandhi.‎
Easwaran calls the 6'6" tall Khan, "a Muslim St. Francis". It is so apt.... The Pathan had a most moving and magnanimous understanding of his great religion. He saw no conflict in his triple identities - his Pathaniat, Hindustaniat and Insaniat (humanity) was an organic whole.... [9]

In the National Catholic Reporter, John Dear described Nonviolent Soldier as "the best introduction to Khan."[23] Dear wrote that "over the past few months, as I have struggled to pray for and think about the suffering people of Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iraq, I have carried around a favorite book, Nonviolent Soldier of Islam."[23]

The book inspired the making of the 2008 film The Frontier Gandhi: Badshah Khan, a Torch for Peace, which won the top award for documentary films[24] at the 3rd Middle East International Film Festival at Abu Dhabi in 2009. The film's director, T. C. McLuhan, stated that, upon receiving the book's first edition in 1987 from an acquaintance, "I looked at it and thought, 'I don't know anything about this part of the world,' and three weeks later, at about 3 in the morning, I picked it up and felt all the electrons around me shift."[15]

[edit] Editions

The original edition was published in English in 1984 by Nilgiri Press, and a year later by Random House. Foreign (non-English) editions have been published in Arabic,[1] Indonesian,[2] Italian,[3][4] Korean,[5] and Turkish.[6]

A second edition was published 1999 in the US by Nilgiri Press, and English-language editions have been published in India. The US editions are:

Indian editions:

[edit] See also

[edit] References

  1. ^ a b c d Eknath Easwaran (1987). A Man to Match His Mountains (1st ed.), translated into Arabic by Wadih Ibrahim Atta. Palestinian Centre for the Study of Nonviolence. (link to Google-translated Arabic page, accessed 3 April 2010 (does not have ISBN).
  2. ^ a b c Eknath Easwaran (2008). Badshas Khan(Leo S. Perwira, trans.). Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Penerbit Bentang. ISBN 9791227462
  3. ^ a b c Eknath Easwaran (1990). Badshah Khan. Il Gandhi musulmano (L. Armando, trans.). Italy: Sonda. ISBN 8871060245, ISBN 9788871060248 (252 pages).
  4. ^ a b c Eknath Easwaran (2008). Il Gandhi musulmano. Un'alternativa per Bin Laden. Italy: Sonda. ISBN 887106514X, ISBN 9788871065144 (256 pages).
  5. ^ a b c Eknath Easwaran (2003). 바드샤 칸(역사인물찾기 14) (Nonviolent Soldier of Islam) (김문호 [gimmunho], trans.). Seoul, South Korea: Silcheon Munhak (via BookCosmos). ISBN 8939204530, ISBN 9788939204539, (452 pages)
  6. ^ a b c Eknath Easwaran (2002). Badşah han: islam'ın silahsız askeri (Badshah Khan: Nonviolent Soldier of Islam) (İhsan Özdemir, trans.). Istanbul, Turkey: Timaş yayınları. ISBN 9753626711, ISBN 9789753626712, (278 pages)
  7. ^ Foreign editions of Nilgiri Press Books,, accessed 3 April 2010.
  8. ^ a b Bill McKibben (1984, Sep. 24). "Notes and Comment" (in "The Talk of the Town"; discusses Easwaran's A Man to Match His Mounts, a biography of Abdul Ghaffar Khan). The New Yorker, pp. 39-40. "A straightforward yet devoted biography.... By his example, [Khan] asks what we ourselves, as individuals made from the same stuff as he, are doing to shape history" (pp. 39-40).
  9. ^ a b c d K. Natwar Singh (October 13-26, 2001). "A non-violent giant [review of A man to match his mountains: Badshah Khan, nonviolent soldier of Islam, by Eknath Easwaran]". Frontline (Chennai, India: The Hindu Group) 18 (21). ISSN 0970-1710. Retrieved 7 April 2010.
  10. ^ a b c Colman McCarthy (February 5, 1985). "On the peace path of Islam [review of a man to match his mountains: Badshah Khan, nonviolent soldier of Islam, by Eknath Easwaran]". Washington Post: pp. E4.
  11. ^ a b Brad Knickerbocker (February 20, 1985). "Ghaffar Khan: Leader of the world's first nonviolent army [review of a man to match his mountains: Badshah Khan, nonviolent soldier of Islam, by Eknath Easwaran]". Christian Science Monitor: pp. 21.
  12. ^ a b Donald Shojai (February 10, 1985). "A Man to Match His Mountains (review of book by Eknath Easwaran)". Los Angeles Times: pp. Q2.
  13. ^ a b Bill McKibben (1989, May 21). "A guru who offers no guarantees: Easwaran teaches a practical method of self-mastery." New York Post, pp. 4-5. Review of Gandhi the Man, A Man to Match His Mountains, Meditation, The Mantram Handbook, and Conquest of Mind.
  14. ^ a b James Caron (2009). "Teaching & learning guide for: Afghanistan historiography and pashtun Islam: Modernization theory's afterimage". History Compass 7 (2): 548–553 \url= \doi= 0.1111/j.1478-0542.2007.00402.x.
  15. ^ a b Allan M. Jalon (2008, Oct. 19). "A Gandhi-like force for peace." Los Angeles Times (retrieved 3 April 2010)
  16. ^ Colman McCarthy (February 9, 1986). "Struggling a century for freedom". Washington Post: pp. H2.
  17. ^ Michael K. Stone & Vijaya Nagarajan (2001). "Nonviolent soldier of Islam (book) [review"]. Whole Earth 106: 83. (NB: Whole Earth magazine, ISSN 0749-5056, was preceded by Whole Earth Review and later Whole Earth Magazine; in 2003 it was superseded by the Whole Earth website)
  18. ^ Carolyn McConnell (2006), "Book Review: Nonviolent Soldier of Islam: Badshah Khan by Eknath Easwaran", Yes! Magazine, Issue 37 (Spring 2006) (ISSN 1089-6651), accessed 3 April 2010.
  19. ^ Frederic Brussat and Mary Ann Brussat (n.d.),Book Review: Nonviolent Soldier of Islam: Badshah Khan by Eknath Easwaran, at Spirituality and Practice.
  20. ^ Aisha Muhammed (2002). Islam and Nonviolence, review at Pace e Bene (NB: website states also published in The Wolf, Winter 2002, and also anthologized in a 2009 book)
  21. ^ Nick Megoran (2002, May 11), posted at [1]
  22. ^ Quoted from 1984 edition, inside front cover (paperback) or front flap (hardcover).
  23. ^ a b John Dear (2010). "Pakistan's Gandhi [discussion of Abdul Ghaffar Khan, drawing largely from Nonviolent Soldier of Islam, by Eknath Easwaran]". National Catholic Reporter. (accessed 26 November 2010)
  24. ^ "MEIFF Announces Winners of 2009 Black Pearl Awards" [2], retrieved 3 Apr 2010.

Wednesday, June 22, 2011

The Footprint of the Boot

Air Conditioning the Military Costs More Than NASA’s Entire Budget

According to Steve Anderson, a retired brigadier general who served as Gen. Petraeus' chief logistician in Iraq, the Department of Defense spends $20 billion air conditioning tents and temporary structures for the military. That's more than NASA's entire $19 billion annual budget.

That cost comes out of the fuel needed to heat and cool tents on the front lines. However, the trucks that transport this fuel have become targets for IEDs used by the insurgency in Iraq and Afghanistan. According to Anderson, at least 1000 soldiers have been killed moving fuel.

Anderson believes that a simple solution would be to instead spray tents with polyurethane foam, kind of like the foam sealant you would use in your own home. In fact, an active $95 million contract to insulate tents is producing $1 billion in cost avoidance, proving it's both safer and greener than air conditioning the desert. Doing this while also searching for other energy-efficient solutions would save both money and lives.

The DOD just needs to hurry up and take on this kind of initiative. [The World via Grist, Image Credit: mumbojumbo /]

Thursday, June 09, 2011

Islam and Nonviolence

Islam and Nonviolence

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Hajj Muhammad Legenhausen

Hajj Muhammad Legenhausen

The program of Islam for the prevention of violence and avoidance of war, injustice, and oppression is one that operates on many different dimensions: spiritual, moral, social, cultural, economic, and political. As divine guidance for humanity, it is announced in the Qur'an that Islam has been established to bring peace and fraternal relations in place of enmity: "Hold fast all together to Allah's cord, and do not be divided into sects. And remember Allah's blessing upon you when you were enemies, then He brought your hearts together, so you became brothers with His blessing. And you were on the brink of a pit of fire, from whence He saved you." (Qur'an 3:103)

There is much to reflect upon in this verse. It tells us that enmity brought the pagan Arabs near to damnation, and that they were saved by God when, by His blessings, their enmity was replaced by brotherhood. However, the teachings of Islam with regard to peace should not be seen as primarily concerned with a cessation of hostilities, for they go much deeper and encompass all the areas of human life.

We can divide the program of Islam to bring peace into three main phases: (1) peace with God; (2) peace within the community; and (3) peace with others. Of these, the first is most important, because when people are able to succeed in making peace with God, their intra- and inter-communal relations will also become peaceful.

Phase I: The Inner Peace of Eimaan

Islamic teachings are to be found in the Qur'an and hadiths, in ethics and 'irfan and in 'ilm al-nafs regarding the inner causes of haram violence, anger, hatred and jealousy, and methods for controlling them.

Phase II: The Peace in Community of Islam

The examples of the Prophet and of his Ahlul Bayt provide ample resources to examine cases in which violent conflict threatened the Muslim community from within or plunged it into civil strife. These cases need to be reviewed in order to understand the measures that were proposed by the divine guides to avert or end such internal strife.

Phase III: Ihsan: Promoting Peace as a Muslim Neighbor

In the third phase, we should consider relations between Muslims and non-Muslims. This phase can be divided into four sorts of cases: (1) Muslim minorities in non-Muslim lands, the paradigm of which is to be found in the group of Muslims sent by the Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) to Ethiopia to avoid persecution; (2) Muslim relations with non-Muslim minorities living among them (the paradigm for which is the protection offered by the Prophet for the Peoples of the Book); (3) relations between Muslims and non-Muslims under different governments (the paradigm of which is to be found in the treaty agreements offered by the Prophet to many non-Muslim tribes and states); and finally, (4) relations of Muslims to non-Muslims among whom there are conflicts. According to a narration attributed to Imam Sadiq (peace be upon him), when asked whether Muslims could sell weapons to non-Muslims who were at war with one another, he replied that armor and shields could be sold to them, but not weapons with which they could kill one another.

Governing all of these aspects or phases of Islamic teaching about peace is the central precept that one should cause no harm. This precept features prominently as one of the five most important principles of jurisprudence by which divine law is discerned on the basis of its sources. If an action is considered to cause harm, this should be considered as reason to consider the action forbidden, unless there is overriding reason to the contrary. Beyond the prescriptions and prohibitions of the law, however, Islam invites us to go far beyond not doing harm and to offer active aid and benefit.

Hajj Muhammad Legenhausen teaches at the Imam Khomieni Education and Research Institute in Qom, Iran. His blog can be accessed at

EDITOR'S NOTE: The purpose of "Clergy Corner" is to provide a forum for scholars of Islam to express their ideas, thoughts, and concerns. By publishing these articles, Islamic Insights does not necessarily endorse their views or opinions. If you know of any scholars who would be interested in contributing to this section, please contact us at

Thursday, February 24, 2011


Islam Peace Nonviolence
Compiled by Karim Douglas Crow, Coordinator– Islam and Peace
Copyright Ó Nonviolence International , September 1998

The items given here are restricted primarily to English language publications, with the addition of a limited number of Arabic and French or Italian titles. No attempt is made to be comprehensive for materials published in Islamic languages (Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Urdu, Bahasa Indonesia ...); those which are included are almost always from the modern period. Readers are warned that concentration on Occidental publications may result in misleading or insufficient information. Only for the topic ‘Nonviolence’ is special attention is given to translations into Arabic.

Diverse themes touching upon Peace find their place here. Boundaries for inclusion embrace the ethical, social–cultural, psychological, cognitive, and ideological experiences of Muslims, both in the past and the present, with an emphasis on themes of peacebuilding, cultural identity, social transformation, and normative values. Some attention is also given to the related topics of human rights, gender equality, and Islamic polity and governance. Occasionally, brief comments on an item’s utility or content are provided, and those deemed to be particularly significant or noteworthy are marked by an initial asterisk. Names of authors may occur both in technical English transliteration and in their published form in Latin script. Only web sites we have explored and deemed pertinent are listed, yet represent a very limited choice. The bibliography comprises the following divisions:

1. Islam and Peace 2. Peace and War in Islam
3. Regional 4. Abdul Ghaffar Khan
5. Islam and Politics 6. Nonviolence: Theory and Practice
7. Periodicals 8. Media & Electronic
1. Islam and Peace (see also Regional)

Abbad, Dr. Abdul Rahman (Spokesman for the Organization of Religious Scholars & Preachers in Palestine). "Peace and Pacifism in Islam." International Journal of Nonviolence [published by Nonviolence International, Washington, DC], III (1996) 60–71.

*‘Abbad, ‘Abd al-Rahman. al-La‘Unf fi l-Islam [Nonviolence in Islam]. Bayt al-Maqdis (East Jerusalem): Hay’at al-‘Ulama’ wa l-Du‘at fi Filastin, 1996 [see esp. the title essay p.1–10, paper read at the Helsinki Conference on Nonviolence, Sept. 27, 1993].

‘Abbad, ‘Abd al-Rahman. Qadaya Islamiyyah Mu‘asirah [Contemporary Islamic Issues]. Jerusalem: Manshurat Wizarat al-Awqaf wa l-Shu’un al-Diniyyah, 1995 [five essays on human rights & peace; see esp. p. 42–58 "al-Salam al-Ijtima‘i / Societal Peace"].

‘Abd al-Rahman, ‘A’ishah. al-Qur’an wa Qadaya l-Insan [The Qur’an and Human Issues]. Beirut: Dar al-‘Ilm li-l-Malayin, 1982.

‘Abd al-Rahim, Muddathir. Islam and Non-Muslim Minorities. Kuala Lumpur: The International Movement for a Just World, 1998 [surveys historical features of Muslim tolerance and accomodation].

Abedin, Syed Zainal. "The Role of Believers in Promoting Mutual Trust and Community." The Islamic Quarterly, v. 34 #1 (1990) 5–21.

*Abou El Azayem, Gamal, & Leila F. Dane, eds. Examining the Merits of Conflict Resolution as an Academic Discipline: Its Applications to Everyday Real Life Situations in the Middle East. Proceedings of the First Conference of the Joint Program on Conflict Resolution (November 12–14, 1991) at the Dar al-Ifta‘ , Cairo, Arab Republic of Egypt [papers published by the World Federation for Mental Health, & World Islamic Association for Mental Health; 130 p.].

Abu l-Fadl, Khalid [see Fadl, Khaled Abou El-].

Abu Laylah, Muhammad. "Islam and Peace." The Islamic Quarterly, 35 #1 (1991) 55–69.

*Abu-Nimer, Muhammad. "Conflict Resolution in an Islamic Context: Some Conceptual Questions." Peace and Change, 21 #1 (Jan. 1996) 22–40.

Abu-Nimer, Muhammad. "Conflict Resolution Approaches: Western and Middle Eastern Lessons and Possibilities." The American Journal of Economics and Sociology, 55 #1 (Jan. 1996) 35–52.

Abu Sinnah, Ahmad Fahmi. "Nazariyyat al-Haqq [Theory of Rights]." in Muhammad Tawfiq ‘Uwaydah, ed., al-Fiqh al-Islami. Cairo: Matabi‘ al-Ahram al-Tijariyyah, 1391/1971; 175–235.

Afkhami, Mahnaz & Erika Friedl, eds. Muslim Women and the Politics of Participation: Implementing the Beijing Platform. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997.

*Afkhami, Mahnaz & Haleh Vaziri. Claiming Our Rights: A Manual for Women’s Human Rights Education in Muslim Societies. Bethesda, MD: Sisterhood is Global Institute, 1996 [a resource manual with bibliography; also being published in Arabic, Azeri-Turkish, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Persian, Russian, Urdu, and Uzbek editions].

*Afkhami, Mahnaz, ed. Faith and Freedom: Women’s Human Rights in the Muslim World. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1995.

Afshari, Reza. "Egalitarian Islam and Misogynist Islamic Tradition: A Critique of the Feminist Reinterpretation of Islamic History and Heritage." Critique: Journal of Critical Studies of Iran and the Middle East, 4 (Spring 1994) 13–34.

Ahmad, Alay (University of Peshawar, Pakistan). "Attitude Toward Capital Punishment: An Islamic Perspective." —paper presented at the International Seminar in Kuala Lumpur, on Counseling and Psychotherapy: an Islamic Perspective, sponsered by Dept. of Psychology – International Islamic University Malaysia, & the International Institute of Islamic Thought Malaysia, August 15–17, 1997.

Ahmad, Hazrat Mirza Tahir. Murder in the Name of Allah. trans. Syed Barakat Ahmad. Cambridge, England: Lutterworth Press, 1990 [trans. from the Urdu Mazhab Kay Naam Per Khoon, by a contemporary leader of the sectarian Ahmadi Movement, as a critique of those justifying violence in the name of Islam – such as Mawdudi, Khomeini, Qaddafi, & the Hizbullah].

Ahmad, Israr. The Quran and World Peace. London: TaHa Publishers, 1984 [trans. from Urdu].

Ahmed, Giasuddin (Ghiyath al-Din: Executive Director of Sampreeti: Society for Peace and Development, 1/16 Humayun Road, Mohammadpur, Block-B, Dhaka–1207, Bangladesh). "Peace is the Basic Spirit in Islam." in As–Salamu ‘Alaykum [journal of the Muslim Peace Fellowship, Nyack, New York], 1 #7–8 (November 1995) 3–5, & 2 #1 (February 1996) 8–11.

Ahmad, Razi. "Islam, Nonviolence, and Global Transformation." in Glenn D. Paige, et al., eds., Islam and Nonviolence. Honolulu: 1993; 27–52.

*Ahrari, Mohammed E. "Islam as a Source of Continuity and Change in the Middle East." in M. E. Ahrari, ed., Change and Continuity in the Middle East: Conflict Resolution and Prospects for Peace. London: Macmillan Press, & New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996; 93–113.

al-Ahsan, ‘Abdullah. Ummah or Nation? Identity Crisis in Contemporary Muslim Society. Leicester: 1992 [advocates strengthening Muslim identification with the ummah ‘Faith Community’ and enhancement of the Organization of the Islamic Conference].

Alternatives Non Violentes, revue associée a l’Institute de recherches sur la resolution non-violente des conflits (IRNC). — #83 Violence et Non-violence en Islam. Ventabren, France: IRNC, Summer 1992 [contributions by Mohammed Arkoun, Bruno Etienne, Jean-Louis Triaud, François Vaillant, Ramin Jahanbegloo, ...]. & see #94 (1995) Les Religions Sont–Elles Violentes?; & #96 (1995) La Peine De Mort Tué! [including Islam’s view of the death penalty].

al-Alwani, Taha Jabir (President, School of Islamic Social Sciences, Leesburg, VA). The Ethics of Disagreement in Islam. Herndon, VA: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1993.

Anga, Salaheddin Ali Nader Shah. Peace. Verdugo City, CA: M.T.O. Shahmaghsoudi Publications, 1987. repr. as Sufism and Peace. Riverside, CA: M.T.O Shahmaghsoudi Publications, n.d. [meditations of an Iranian Sufi working in N. America].

Arkoun, Mohammed. "The Concept of Authority in Islamic Thought." in The Islamic World from Classical to Modern Times: Essays in Honor of Bernard Lewis. Princeton: Darwin Press, 1989.

*Arkoun, Mohammed. "The Unity of Man in Islamic Thought." Translated R. Scott Walker. Diogenes, 140 (1987) 50–69.

Arkoun, Mohammed. Pour une critique de la raison islamique. Paris: Maisonneuve et Larose, 1984.

Ascha, Ghassan. Du Statut inférieur de la femme en Islam. Paris: L’Harmattan, 1987.

*al-Ashmawi, Muhammad Sa‘id. "Shari‘a in the Discussion on Secularism and Democracy." in Christopher Toll & Jakof Skasgaard-Petersen, eds., Law and the Islamic World: Past and Present. Copenhagen: The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences & Letters, 1995; 133–138 [for al-Ashmawi’s thought, see C. Fluehr-Lobban, ed., Against Islamic Extremism].

al-Ashmawy, Muhammad Saïd. L'Islamisme contre l-islam, trans. Richard Jacquemond, with Iman Farag & Raphael Costi. Paris: La Découverte, 1989 [translation of al-Islam al-Siyasi. Cairo: Editions al-Fikr, 1987].

Athar, Shahid. Peace through Submission. Karachi, Pakistan: Pan–Islamic Publishing House, 1989.

*al-Attas, Syed Muhammad Naquib (Founder–Director, ISTAC). Haqiqat al-Sa‘adah wa Ma‘naha fi l-Islam. Kuala Lumpur: International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization, 1993. English trans. The Meaning and Experience of Happiness in Islam. Kuala Lumpur: ISTAC, 1993.

al-Attas, Syed Muhammad Naquib. Islam, Secularism, and the Philosophy of the Future. London: Mansell, 1985.

Austin, R.J.W. "Some Key Words in the Islamic Concept of Man." Studies in Comparative Religion, 10 (1976) 46–57.

al-‘Awwa, Muhammad Salim. "al-Ta‘addudiyyah al-Siyasiyyah min Manzur Islami [Political Pluralism from an Islamic Perspective]." Minbar al-Hiwar, 6 #20 (Winter 1991), 129ff. See English version: Mohamed Selim El-Awa, "Pluralism in Islam," The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 8 (1991).

al-‘Awwa, Muhammad S. Punishment in Islamic Law. Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1982.

*Ayoub, Mahmoud. Islam: Faith and Practice. Markham, Ontario, etc.: The Open Press, 1989 [sensitive overview of major aspects of Islamic tradition, covers often neglected topics; see esp. chapter 10 on Muslim society or the Ummah as a religious, social and economic entity, and chapter 11 on jihad].

Ayoub, Mahmoud. "Islam and Pluralism." Encounters, 3 #2 (1997) 103–18.

Ayoub, Mahmoud. "Religious Freedom and the Law of Apostasy in Islam." Islamochristiana [Journal of the Vatican Secretariat for Non-Christians], 20 (1994) 75–91.

*Ayoub, Mahmoud. "The Muslim Ummah and the Islamic State." in Syed Othman Alhabshi & Syed Omar Syed Agil, eds., The Role and Influence of Religion in Society. Malaysia: Institute of Islamic Understanding, 1994; 49–57.

Ayoub, Mahmoud. "Islam and Christianity: Between Tolerance and Acceptance." Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, (December 1991) 171–181.

*Ayoub, Mahmoud. "Roots of Muslim–Christian Conflict." The Muslim World, 79 #1 (1989) 25–45.

Ayoub, Mahmoud. "Martyrdom in Christianity and Islam." in R.T. Antoun & M.E. Hegland, eds., Religious Resurgence: Contemporary Cases in Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1987; 67–77.

*Ayoub, Mahmoud. "The Problem of Suffering in Islam." Journal of Dharma, (1977) 267–294.

Azad, Abul Kalam. Islamic Conception of Love and Goodness. Karachi: Peermahomed Ebrahim Trust, 1970 [trans. from his Urdu work Khilafat va Imamat; for an appreciation of his thought, see the work of S. Muzzammil below].

*Azad, Abul Kalam. The Tarjuman al-Qur’an, ed. & rendered into English by Syed Abdul Latif. Bombay & New York: Asia Publishing House, 1962 [vols.1–2 of his Qur’an commentary].

Azad, Abul Kalam. The Quintessence of Islam, written & compiled by Ashfaq Husain. Bombay & New York: Asia Publishing House, 1960 [summary of Azad’s commentary on al-Fatihah, the first chapter of the Qur’an; see the study of Azad’s thought below by S. Muzzammil.]

Aziz, Qutubuddin. The Prophet of Peace and Humanity. London: TaHa Publishers, 1986.

*‘Azzam, ‘Abd al-Rahman. The Eternal Message of Muhammad, trans. Caesar E. Farah. London: The Islamic Texts Society, 1993 [1st ed., Toronto: 1964; reprint of a classic work].

Azzam, Salem, ed. Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights. London: Islamic Council of Europe, 1981.

Baba, Noor Ahmad. "Muslim Quest for Unity and the Emergence of the Organization of Islamic Conference." Islam and the Modern Age, 19 #1 (1988) 13–41.

Bakar, Osman. "Islam and Bioethics." in N.M. Vaporis, ed., Orthodox Christians and Muslims. Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1986; 157–179.

al-Banna, Hasan. al-Salam fi l-Islam [Peace in Islam]. Beirut: Manshurat al-‘Asr al-Hadith, 1971.

Bashear, Suliman. Arabs and Others in Early Islam. Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press, 1997 [studies interplay of ethnicities and cultural identities in the formative Islamic era; pertinent for Muslim self-definition].

Behishti, Ayatullah Muhammad Hosayni, & Hujjatul–Islam Javad Bahonar. The Philosophy of Islam. Salt Lake City, Utah: Islamic Publications, n.d. [two theorists of the Iranian revolution on relevance of Islam for contemporary needs].

Bodman, Herbert L., & Nayereh E. Tohidi, eds. Women in Muslim Societies: Diversity Within Unity. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998 [the status, roles, and contributions of Muslim women in various parts of the Islamic world].

*Boisard, Marcel A. Jihad: a Commitment to Universal Peace. Indianapolis, IN: American Trust Publications, 1988 [first published as L’Humanisme de l’Islam, Paris: Albin Michel, 1979].

Borrmans, Maurice. "Les droits de l’homme en milieu musulman." Studia Missionalia, 39 (1990) 254–276.

Boulares, Habib. Islam: the Fear and the Hope. London & New Jersey: Zed Books, 1990.

Boullata, Isa J. "Fa-stabiqu ’l-khayrat: A Qur’anic Principle of Interfaith Relations." in Yvonne Y. Haddad & Wadi Z. Haddad, eds., Christian–Muslim Encounters. Gainesville, etc.: University Press of Florida, 1995; 43–53 [examines the Qur’anic basis for harmonious religious pluralism].

Brohi, A. K. (former minister of law and religious affairs in Pakistan). "Human Rights and Duties in Islam, A Philosophic Approach." in S. Azzam, ed., Islam and Contemporary Society. London: 1982.

Brohi, A. K. "The Nature of Islamic Law and the Concept of Human Rights." in International Commission of Jurists, Kuwait University, & Union of Arab Lawyers, Human Rights in Islam: Report of a Seminar Held in Kuwait, December 1980. International Commission of Jurists, 1982; 43–60 [places ‘duties’ over ‘rights’ from within a theocentric perspective].

Brown, Daniel. Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996 [looks at impact of approaches to reviving Islamic law upon Islamist revival movements and attitudes toward religious authority].

Burns, J. Patout, ed. War and its Discontents: Pacifism and Quietism in the Abrahamic Traditions. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1996 [see contribution by Professor A. A. Sachedina].

*Cahen, Claude, & M. Talbi, et al. "Hisba." Encyclopaedia of Islam, new edition, III 485–93.

Clarke, Lynda. "Suicide." In J.L. Esposito, ed., Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World, IV 133–35.

11th Conference on the Law of the World; Cairo, Egypt; September, 1983. The Universal Legal Principles as a Basis for World Peace. Washington, D.C.: World Peace Through Law Center, 1984.

*Cooper, John, & Ronald Nettler & Mohamed Mahmoud, eds. Islam and Modernity: Muslim Intellectuals Respond. London: I.B. Tauris, 1998 [on contemporary Muslim responses to current realities; see esp. the late J. Cooper’s study of the Syrian thinker Shaykh ‘Abd al-Rahman al-Buti].

*Coulson, Noel. "The State and the Individual in Islamic Law." International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 6 (1957) 49–60 [on the relation of duties vs. rights, and communal or individual roles].

Crane, Robert. Shaping the Future: Challenges and Response. Boston, MA: Islamic Society of Boston, 1998 [a scholar, former US government official and convert to Islam, reviews the crisis of global civilization, and points to common universal values of the American Constitution and Islamic Shari‘ah].

*Crow, Karim D., ed. Islam and Peace in the 15th/21st Century. Proceedings of the Symposium held at The American University, February 6–7, 1998. Nonviolence International: forthcoming, 1999; series Islam & Peace #2 [Keynote Addresses by Seyyid Hossein Nasr and Sayyidah Rabab Sadr Charafeddine; summary of discussions; texts of the working papers by Maulana Wahiduddin Khan, Ustadh Jawdat Sa‘id, Professor Su‘ad al-Hakim, M. A. Muqtedar Khan, Dr. Mehmet A. Ersoy; & summaries of papers by Haji Abdurrahman Wahid and Dr. Sohail Hashmi; with introduction & annexes].

Crow, Karim D. "Between Prophets and History: The Radical Vision of Islamic Peace by Ustadh Jawdat b. Sa‘id Muhammad." forthcoming in Studies in Contemporary Islam.

Crow, Karim D. "Muslims and the Way of Peace." Sojourners: Faith, Politics, and Culture, 27 #3 (May–June 1998) 11–12.

Crow, Karim D. "Divided Discourse: Muslim Discussions about Islam and Peace." The Diplomat, 2 #6 (Nov. 1997 / Rajab 1418) 32–34, & Arabic 28–30.

Crow, Karim D. "Islamic Ethics and ‘Changing Behavior’." International Journal of Nonviolence, III (1996) 72–86.

*Crow, Ralph E., & Philip Grant & Saad E. Ibrahim, eds. Arab Nonviolent Political Struggle in the Middle East. Boulder, CO & London: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1990; Arab Thought Forum International Dialogues Series [conference in Amman, Nov. 15–18, 1986, under the auspices of the Arab Thought Forum] — includes appendices by Gene Sharp & Ronald M. McCarthy. See the Arabic edition: *Sa‘d al-Din Ibrahim, ed. al-Muqawamat al-Madaniyyah fi l-Nidal al-Siyasi [Civil Resistance in Political Struggle]. Amman: Muntada l-Fikr al-‘Arabi, 1988 [papers vary somewhat from English edition]. See esp. Chaiwat Satha–Anand, "al-La‘Unf fi l-Islam [Nonviolence in Islam]" [modified version of his previously published "Nonviolent Crescent"]; Hasan Hanafi, "Jadaliyyat al-‘Unf wa l-La‘Unf fi l-Islam [The Polemic of Violence and Nonviolence in Islam]" 65–80; Ralph Crow & P. Grant, "Tasa’ulat wa Khilafat hawl al-La‘Unf fi l-Sharq al-Awsat [Questions and Controversies about Nonviolent Struggle in the Middle East]" 143–160; also see further, Johan Galtung, Nonviolence and Israel / Palestine (Honolulu: 1989) chaps. 1 & 4 [his paper presented in Amman].

*Dallal, Ahmad S. "Ummah." in J.L. Espositio, ed., The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Modern Islamic World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995 [good bibliography on this key notion].

Davies, Meryl Wyn, & Adnan Khalil Pasha, eds. Beyond Frontiers: Islam and Contemporary Needs. London: Mansell, 1989.

Dietrich, William Louis. "Re-interpretation of Traditional Boundaries for the Uses of Violence and Nonviolence: Islam and Judaism." Master’s Thesis, University of Texas at Austin, 1994; 74 p.

Djait, Hisham. La Personnalité et le devenir arabo-islamiques. Paris: albin Michel, 1979.

Duran, Khalid. "The Vocation of Islam in a Conflictual World." in Paul Peachey, George F. McLean & John Kromkowski, eds., Abrahamic Faiths, Ethnicity and Ethnic Conflicts. Washington D.C.: The Council for Research in Values and Philosophy, 1997.

Dwyer, Kevin. Arab Voices: The Human Rights Debate in the Middle East. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.

Eickelman, Dale F. "Mass Higher Education and the Religious Imagination in Contemporary Arab Societies." American Ethnologist, 19 #4 (November 1992) 643–655.

*El Azayem, Ahmed G.M. "Hudaybiyya Peace Conciliation." in Examining the Merits of Conflict Resolution as an Academic Discipline; Proceedings of the First Conference of the Joint Program on Conflict Resolution (Cairo, November 12–14, 1991) 43–48.

*Encyclopaedia of Islam, New Edition. C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs, & G. Lecomte, eds. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1960— [currently at vol. VIII ‘S’; unparalleled scholarly resource, sound bibliographies, covers historical and conceptual aspects of Islamic tradition, thought, and personalities].

Engineer, Asghar Ali (Director – Indian Institute of Islamic Studies, Bombay). The Rights of Women in Islam. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996 [presents what he views as the original intention of Islamic prescriptions on women’s behavior & how they were misinterpreted; calls for reforming Muslim personal law in India].

Engineer, Asghar Ali. "Islam and Nonviolence." in Arun Gandhi, ed., World Without Violence: Can Gandhi’s Vision Become Reality? New Delhi & London, etc.: Wiley Eastern Limited & New Age International Limited, 1994; 88–90.

*Engineer, Asghar Ali. Islam and Liberation Theology: Essays on Liberative Elements in Islam. New Delhi, India: Sterling Publishers Private Limited, 1990.

Engineer, Asghar Ali. "On Developing Liberation Theology in Islam." in Asghar Ali Engineer, Islam and its Relevance to our Age. Bombay: Institute of Islamic Studies, 1984; 88–129.

*Esack, Farid (University of the Western Cape, South Africa). Qur’an, Liberation and Pluralism: An Islamic Perspective of Inter-religious Solidarity Against Oppression. Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 1997; & London: Macmillan, 1997.

Esposito, John L.. ed. The Oxford Encyclopaedia of the Modern Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995 [useful surveys of current topics and trends].

Ezzat, Heba Raouf & Ahmad. Beyond Politics: Islamic Perspectives. forthcoming.

*Fadl, Khaled Abou El. The Authoritative and Authoritarian in Islamic Discourses. Austin, TX: Quill Publishers, 1997.

Fadl, Khaled Abou El. "Islamic Law and Muslim Minorities." Islamic Law and Society [Leiden], 1 #2 (August 1994).

Fadlallah, al-Sayyid Muhammad Husayn. In the Realm of Muslim-Christian Dialogue. Birmingham, UK: Centre for the Study of Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations (Selly Oak Colleges), 1997 [CSIC Occasional Paper].

Fattal, Antoine. Le Statut légal des non-musulmans en pays d’Islam. Beirut: Imprimerie Catholique, 1958.

Fellowship, 60 #5–6 (May/June 1994) — special issue on "Islam, Peace and Nonviolence" [published by the Fellowship of Reconciliation & IFOR].

Ferjani, Mohamed–Chérif. Islamisme, laïcité, et droits de l’homme: un siècle de débat sans cesse reporté au sein de la pensée arabe contemporaine. Paris: Editions l’Harmattan, 1991 [covers the Arab world and Islam–state relations with regard to human rights].

Fernea, Elizabeth W., ed. Children in the Muslim Middle East. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1995 [pioneering collection of articles covering fifteen countries, most written by indigenous Muslim scholars; includes the code of children’s rights in Islam, & adoption in Islamic society].

Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn, ed. Against Islamic Extremism: The Writings of Muhammad Sa‘id al-’Ashmawy. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1998.

FONS VITAE (Book Publisher & Distributor, Louisville KY, ( /Fax 502–897-3641). Islam and World Peace [forthcoming 1999; simple brief overview].

Gardet, Louis. La cité musulmane. Paris: 1954 [classic overview of Islamic urban civilization].

al-Ghannouchi, Rashid (al-Ghannushi; Tunisian Islamist thinker). "Towards Inclusive Strategies for Human Rights Enforcement in the Arab World—A Response." Encounters [Leicester, UK], 2 #2 (September 1996).

*al-Ghannushi, Rashid. al-Hurriyyat al-‘Ammah fi l-Islam [Public Freedom in Islam]. Beirut: Center for Arab Unity Studies, 1993.

*al-Ghazali, Abu Hamid Muhammad (d. 505/1111). Al-Ghazali on Disciplining the Soul / Kitab Riyadat al-nafs & on Breaking the Two Desires / Kitab Kasr al-shahwatayn. Books XXII and XXIII of The Revival of the Religious Sciences / Ihya’ ‘ulum al-din. Translated with an introduction and notes by T. J. Winter. Cambridge, UK: The Islamic Texts Society, 1995; 2nd pr. 1997 [basic for comprehending the normative faith–practice underlying Islam’s moral and social order].

Haddad, Yvonne Y. "Islamist Depictions of Christianity in the Twentieth Century: the pluralism debate and the depiction of the other." Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 7 #1 (1996); 75–93.

Haidar, S. M. "Equality Before Law and Equal Protection of Laws as Legal Doctrines for the Prevention of Discrimination and Protection of Minorities." in S. M. Haidar, ed., Islamic Concept of Human Rights. Lahore: Book House, 1978; 213–237.

Hakim, K.A. Islamic Ideology: the fundamental beliefs and principles of Islam and their application to practical life. Lahore: Institute of Islamic Culture, 1951.

al-Hakim, Su‘ad (Chair: Dept. of Philosophy, The Lebanese University, Beirut). "al-Islam wa l-Salam [Islam and Peace]." Paper presented at the Symposium ‘Islam and Peace’ (February 6–7, 1998; The American University, Washington D.C.). forthcoming in: Karim Crow, ed., Islam and Peace in the 15th/21st Century.

Hamed, Safei El-Deen. "Seeing the Environment Through Islamic Eyes: Application of Shari‘ah to Natural Resources, Planning and Management." Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics, 6 #2 (1993) 145–164.

Hamdi, Mohamed El-Hashmi (Muhammad al-Hashimi al-Hamidi, progressive Tunisian thinker and independent publisher). The Making of an Islamic Political Leader: Conversations with Hasan Al-Turabi. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998 [interviews on pressing topics with the ideological leader of Sudan’s Islamist movement].

*Hanafi, Hassan [Hasan]. Islam, Religious Dialogue and Liberation Theology, and Islam and Reconciliation. Birmingham: Centre for Study of Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, 1997.

Hanafi, Hassan. "An Islamic Approach to Multilateralism." in Robert W. Cox, ed., The New Realism: Perspectives on Multilateralism and World Order. New York: United Nations University Press, 1997.

Hanafi, Hasan. Min al-‘Aqidah ila l-Thawrah [From Belief to Revolution]. vols. 1—5, Cairo: Maktabat al-Madbuli, 1988 [part of his massive ongoing project al-Turath wa l-Tajdid / The Heritage and Renewal, Cairo: Maktabat al-Madbuli, 1980—; offering a committed Islamist view of reform].

*Hasan, Hanafi. "Jadaliyyat al-‘Unf wa l-La‘Unf fi l-Islam [The Polemic of Violence and Nonviolence in Islam]." In Sa‘d al-Din Ibrahim, ed., al-Muqawamat al-Madaniyyah fi l-Nidal al-Siyasi (Amman 1988) 76-82.

Hanafi, Hassan. "Life in Peace: An Islamic Perspective." Bulletin of Peace Proposals 18 #3 (1987) 433–48.

Hanafi, Hassan. Religious Dialogue and Revolution: Essays on Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Cairo: Anglo Egyptian Bookshop, 1977.

Harik, Ramsey M. & Elsa Marston. Women in the Middle East: Tradition and Change. Danbury, CT: Grolier Publishing Co., 1996 [a well-nuanced presentation of issues, proceeding through the stages of a woman’s life from childhood to later years].

*Hashmi, Sohail H. "Islamic Ethics and International Society." in T. Nardin, ed., International Society: Diverse Ethical Perspectives. The Ethikon Series, Princeton University Press, 1998;

*Hashmi, Sohail H. "The Islamic Ethics of War and Peace." Ph.D., Harvard University, 1996 [forthcoming 1999].

*Hashmi, Sohail H. "Interpreting the Islamic Ethics of War and Peace." in T. Nardin, ed., The Ethics of War and Peace: Religious and Secular Perspectives. The Ethikon Series, Princeton University Press, 1996; 146–166.

*Hashmi, Sohail H. "Self-Determination and Secession in Islamic Thought." in Mortimer Sellers, ed., The New World Order: Sovereignty, Human Rights, and the Self-Determination of Peoples. Washington, D.C.: BERG, 1996; 117–151.

*Hashmi, Sohail H. "Is There an Islamic Ethic of Humanitarian Intervention?" Ethics and International Affairs, 7 (1993) 55 –73.

Hassan, Riffat. "On Human Rights and the Qur’anic Perspective." in Arlene Swidler, ed., Human Rights in Religious Traditions. New York: The Pilgrim Press, 1982; 51–65.

Hjarpe, J. "Historiography and Islamic Vocabulary in War and Peace: A Memento for Conflict Resolution in the Muslim World." in Douglas P. Fry & Kaj Bjorkqvist, eds., Cultural Variation in Conflict Resolution: Alternatives to Violence. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1996; 115–122.

Hofmann, Murad Wilfried (former German Ambassador to Algeria & Morocco). Islam 2000. Beltsville, MD: Amana Publications, 1996.

Hoyland, Robert G. Seeing Islam As Others Saw It: A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian Writings on Early Islam. Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press, 1997 [analyzes some 120 non-Muslim texts dealing with the first century and a half of Islam (ca. 620–780 C.E.), drawing out historical implications for the process of Islamization; relevant for historical & current Muslim self-definition].

Ibn Taymiyyah, Taqi l-Din Ahmad b. ‘Abd al-Halim (d.728 / 1328, noted Hanbali theologian & jurist of Damascus). Public Duties in Islam, trans. Mukhtar Holland. Leicester: UK Islamic Foundation, 1982.

Ibrahim, Anwar (former Deputy Prime Minister, Malaysia). The Need for Civilizational Dialogue. Washington, D.C.: Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding, Georgetown University, 1995.

*Ibrahim, Anwar. "The Ummah and Tomorrow’s World." Futures 23 #3 (April 1991) 302–310 [special issue on ‘Islam and the Future’; argues for the dynamic utility of ummah in reinterpreting the past and meeting global problems of equity and justice, in terms of a critical and open traditionalism].

Ibrahim, Sa‘d al-Din (Director, Ibn Khaldoun Center for Development Studies, Cairo), ed. al-Muqawamat al-Madaniyyah fi l-Nidal al-Siyasi [Civil Resistance in Political Struggle] — see S.-D. Ibrahim, "Introduction: Why Nonviolent Political Struggle in the Middle East?", in Ralph E. Crow, et al., eds., Arab Nonviolent Political Struggle, 1–8.

*‘Imarah, Muhammad. al-Islam wa Huquq al-Insan: Darurat La Huquq [Islam and Human Rights: Requirements not Rights]. Cairo: Dar al-Shuruq, 1409/1989.

Inayatullah, Sohail. "Exploring the Futures of the Ummah: A Review of Simulation Models and Approaches to the Study of Alternative Futures." The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 15 #1 (Spring 1998) 1–30 [suggests ways of re-envisioning the ummah as an "interpretive community" in legitimizing the view of the future from Islamic perspectives].

Inayatullah, Sohail. "Islamic Responses to Emerging Scientific, Technological and Epistemological Transformations." Islamic Thought & Scientific Creativity, 6 #2 (1995) 47–68.

Iqbal, Afzal. The Prophet’s Diplomacy: The Art of Negotiation as Conceived and Developed by the Prophet of Islam. 2nd ed., Cape Cod, MA: Claude Stark & Co., 1975; 5th ed. New Delhi: International Islamic Publishers, 1992 [sketchy and naively idealistic].

Islahi, M. Y. Etiquettes of Life in Islam. Delhi: 1979.

"Islam and Peacemaking." Reconciliation International (February, 1988) [Magazine of the International Fellowship of Reconciliation, London].

*Izutsu, Toshihiko. Ethico–Religious Concepts in the Qur’an. Montreal: McGill University Press, 1966 [insightful review of essential Qur’anic teachings by a profound student of Islamic thought].

Jabre, B., Underwood, C., and L. Goodsmith. Arab Women Speak Out: Profiles of Self-Empowerment. Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Center for Communications Programs, Baltimore, Maryland & the Center for Arab Women for Training and Research, Tunis, Tunisia: 1997 [in English & Arabic versions; accompanies a series of ten video profiles on women and social change].

*Jalabi, Khalis M. Falsafat al-Quwwah wa l-Muqawamah [The Philosophy of Power and Resistance]. Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, forthcoming.

*Jalabi, Khalis M. Sikulujiyyat al-‘Unf wa Istratijiyyat al-‘Amal al-Silmi [The Psychology of Violence and the Strategy of ‘Peaceful Action’]. Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1998 [an analysis of human violence, calling for adopting tactics of direct nonviolent action for change in Muslim societies].

*Jalabi, Khalis M. Series of lengthy articles in his weekly Thursday column in al-Riyadh daily newspaper (al-Riyad, Saudi Arabia), including:

"al-Hajj wa Dars al-La‘Unf [The Pilgrimage and the Lesson of Nonviolence]," April 24, 1997 / 17 Dhu l-Hijjah 1417;

"Tahyid al-‘Unf [Neutralizing Violence]" – in three parts: (1) Sept. 18, 1997 / 17 Jumada l-Ula 1418, (2) "Jadaliyyat al-Fikrah wa l-Sayf [Polemic between Thought and the Sword]," Sept. 25, 1997 / 24 Jumada l-Thani 1418, & (3) "Jadaliyyat al-Sira‘ al-Insani [The Polemic on Human Conflict]," Oct. 2, 1997 / 1 Jumada l-Akhirah 1418;

"al-Taharrur min al-Khawf [Liberation from Fear]" – part (2) "Jadaliyyat al-Khawf wa l-‘Unf [The Polemic of Fear and Violence]," Nov. 11, 1997 / 12 Rajab 1418;

"Qanun al-Hubb wa Qanun al-‘Unf [The Law of Love and the Law of Violence]," March 12, 1998 / 14 Dhu l-Qa‘dah 1418;

"Naba’ Ibnay Adam: Falsafat al-Quwwah wa l-Muqawamah [‘Tidings of the two sons of Adam’: The Philosophy of Force and Resistance]"– in three parts: (1) April 2, 1998 / 5 Dhu l-Hijjah 1418, (2) April 9, 1998 / 12 Dhu l-Hijjah 1418, (3) April 16, 1998 / 19 Dhu l-Hijjah 1418;

"al-Khiyar al-Sa‘b bayna l-Ghabah wa l-Dawlah: Masar al-‘Unf Anthrubulujiyyan wa Falsafat Wiladat al-Dawlah [Difficult Choice between the Jungle and the State: The Path of Violence Viewed Anthropologically, and the Philosophy of State Genesis]"– in two parts: (1) April 23, 1998 / 26 Dhu l-Hijjah 1418, (2) April 30, 1998 / 4 Muharram 1419;

"Afkar Ta’sisiyyah li-l-Nuhud [Foundational Ideas for Revival]," May 28, 1998 / 3 Safar 1419; "Ta’sis La‘Unf ‘Arabi Dakhili [Establishing Regional Arab Nonviolence]," June 18, 1998 / 24 Safar 1419 (text of his paper delivered at the conference on ‘Extremism, Violence, & Terrorism’ in Amman, May 3–13, 1998, sponsored by the Suja Foundation for Artistic Creation).

[In these detailed articles, Dr. Jalabi elaborates an enlightened Islamic conception of "neutralizing violence" through recourse to Islamic Tradition, contemporary behavioral psychology, social anthropology and philosophy; in order to foster adoption of this ‘tactic of nonviolence’ for invigorating Arab–Islamic political, cultural, and social revival.]

*Jensen, Jeppe S. (University of Aarhus, Denmark). "Towards Contemporary Islamic Concepts of the Person." in Hans G. Kippenberg, Y.B. Kuiper, & A.F. Sanders, eds., Concepts of Person in Religion and Thought. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1990; 177–217 [insightful].

*Kamali, Mohammad Hashim (Professor of Law, International Islamic University, Malaysia). Freedom of Expression in Islam. Cambridge (U.K.): Islamic Texts Society, 1997 [revised version of 1st edition (Kuala Lumpur: 1994); a detailed, well documented study of the legal and ethical sources].

*Kamali, M. H. "Freedom of Expression in Islam: An Analysis of Fitnah." American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 10 (1993) 178–201.

*Kamali, M. H. "An Analysis of Rights in Islamic Law." American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 10 (1993) 340–367.

*Kamali, M. H. "Have We Neglected the Shari‘ah Law Doctrine of Maslahah?" Islamic Studies, 27 (1988) 287–304.

Kateregga, Badru D. & David W. Shenk. Islam and Christianity: A Muslim and Christian in Dialogue. Nairobi, Kenya: Uzima Press, 1980; rpr. 1997 [available from F.O.R., Nyack, NY].

Kaur, Jatinder (Jami‘ah Milliyyah Islamiyyah, New Delhi). "Psychotherapy and Counseling in Islam." —paper presented at the International Seminar in Kuala Lumpur, on Counseling and Psychotherapy: an Islamic Perspective, sponsered by Dept. of Psychology – International Islamic University Malaysia, & the International Institute of Islamic Thought Malaysia, August 15–17, 1997.

Khadduri, Majid. "Sulh." The Encyclopaedia of Islam, new edition. v. IX 845–46.

*Khan, Maulana Wahiduddin (President – The Islamic Center, New Delhi). "Non-Violence and Islam." Paper presented at the Symposium ‘Islam and Peace’ (February 6–7, 1998) forthcoming in: Karim Crow, ed., Islam and Peace in the 15th/21st Century.

*Khan, Maulana Wahiduddin. Fikr-e Islami [Islamic Thought]. New Delhi: al-Risala Books – The Islamic Centre, 1996; see esp. p.5–112 on jihad [in Urdu; major summary of the ideas of a prominent Muslim peace thinker].

*Khan, Mohammed A. Muqtedar. "Peace and Change in the Islamic World." Paper presented at the Symposium ‘Islam and Peace’; forthcoming in: Karim Crow, ed., Islam and Peace in the 15th/21st Century.

*Khan, Mohammed A. Muqtedar. "Islam as an Ethical Tradition of International Relations." Islam and Christian–Muslim Relations, 8 #2 (1997) 173–188 [explores Islamic ethical traditions as potential source for peaceful relations between nations & peoples].

Khan, Mohammed A. Muqtedar. "Islam and Peace." The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 15/1 (Spring 1998) 158–162 [conference report ].

Khan, Muhammad Zafrulla. Human Rights in Islam. London: Higginson, 1967.

*Khatemi, Seyyed Mohammad (President, Islamic Republic of Iran). Hope and Challenge: The Iranian President Speaks, trans. Alidad Mafinezam; eds. Parviz Morewedge & Kent P. Jackson. Binghamton, NY: Institute of Global Cultural Studies, Binghamton University, State University of New York, 1997 [gives four texts of political and cultural import: two essays first published in Khatami’s Fear of the Wave (Tehran 1993), a lecture ‘Observations on the Information World’ delivered in 1995 at the National Library of Iran, and his August 4, 1997 inaugural address].

*Khuri, Richard K. Freedom, Modernity, and Islam: Toward a Creative Synthesis. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1998 [treats philosophical origins of the notions of freedom in both Western and Islamic context, and examines the status of freedom in the Arab Muslim world].

Kishtainy, Khalid [see al-Qishtayni].

*Kubba, Laith. "Recognizing Pluralism." Journal of Democracy, 7 (April 1996). [See Kubba’s bi-lingual publication from London, Islam 21, for fresh views on pressing Islamic issues.]

Kuftaro, Shaykh Ahmad (1915– ; Grand Mufti of the Syrian Arab Republic). The Way of Truth, trans. Farouk Akbik. Damascus: World Quran School, 1996. [letters & speeches of H.E. Shaykh Kuftaro].

Kumar, Mahendra, ed. Nonviolence: Contemporary Issues and Challenges. New Delhi: Gandhi Peace Foundation, 1994 [reprint of a special issue of Gandhi Marg #14 / 1 (April–June 1992) on Nonviolence]. — see: Asghar Ali Engineer, "Sources of Nonviolence in Islam" 98–106; Syed Sikander Mehdi, "Islam and Nonviolence" 116–140; & Syeda Saiyidain Hameed (Nehru Memorial Museum & Library, Teen Murti House, New Delhi), "Nonviolence in Islam" 141–153.

Lampe, Gerald E., ed. Justice and Human Rights in Islamic Law. Washington, D.C.: International Law Institute & Shaybani Society of International Law, 1997 [see the final contribution by Majid Khadduri on spiritual jihad].

Landau, Jacob M. The Politics of Pan–Islam: Ideology and Organization. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1990.

*Lapidus, Ira M. "Knowledge, Virtue, and Action: the Classical Muslim Conception of Adab and the Nature of Religious Fulfillment in Islam." in Barbara D. Metcalf, ed., Moral Conduct and Authority: the Place of Adab in South Asian Islam. Berkeley, CA: Univ. of California Press, 1984; 38–61 [fine overview of classical Islamic ethical norms].

Lawrence, Bruce B. Shattering the Myth: Islam Beyond Violence. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998.

*Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. Islam and Justice: Debating the Future of Human Rights in the Middle East and North Africa. New York: LCHR, Jan. 1997.

Lee, Robert D. Overcoming Tradition and Modernity: the Search for Islamic Authenticity. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997 [how contemporary Muslim thinking seeks to avoid a false dichotomization of modernity and tradition, studies four 20th century thinkers: M. Iqbal, Sayyid Qutb, ‘Ali Shari‘ati, & M. Arkoun].

Lindholm, Tore & Kari Vogt, eds. Islamic Law Reform and Human Rights: Challenges and Rejoinders. Copenhagen: Nordic Human Rights Publications, 1993.

*Madelung, Wilfred. "Amr Be Ma‘ruf." Encyclopaedia Iranica, ed. Ehsan Yarshater. London, etc.: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1985; v.I 992–95 [important details on historical unfolding of the key doctrine ‘Enjoining the good and Forbidding the reprehensible’].

*Mahmassani, Subhi. Arkan Huquq al-Insan fi l-Islam [Bases of Human Rights in Islam]. Beirut: Dar al-‘Ilm li-l-Malayin, 1979 [exemplifies how Muslims are joining contemporary notions of human rights with Islamic tradition ].

Mahmood, Tahir, et al. "Symposium: Organ Transplant—Euthanasia—Right to Die: Indian and Islamic Legal Responses." Islamic and Comparative Law Quarterly, 7 #2 (1987) 111–164.

Mahmud, Ibrahim. al-Hijrah ila l-Islam: Hawl al-‘Alam al-Fikri li-Jawdat Sa‘id; Hiwar – Dirasat – Ta‘qib [The Migration towards Islam: On the Thought World of Jawdat Sa‘id: Conversations – Studies – Critique]. Damascus: Dar al-Fikr; & Beirut: Dar al-Fikr al-Mu‘asir, 1995 [studies the thought of this contemporary Muslim peace philosopher].

Makdisi, George. The Rise of Humanism in Classical Islam and the West. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1990.

Malek Bennabi [see al-Nabi, Malik ibn].

*Malik, Iftikhar H. "Islamic Discourse on Jihad, War and Violence." Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, 21 #4 (Summer 1998) 47–78.

Mansoor, Parvez. "The Crisis of Muslim Thought and the Future of the Ummah." in Zia Sardar, ed., The Early Crescent: The Future of Knowledge and the Environment in Islam. London & New York: Mansell, 1989; 57–92.

*Marlow, Louise. Hierarchy and Egalitarianism in Islamic Thought. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997 [studies Islam’s original social egalitarianism, how it became undermined by political success and over time associated with political subversion].

al-Masihiyyah wa l-Islam fi l-Hiwar wa l-Ta‘awun [Christianity and Islam in Dialgue and Cooperation] – series by Markaz al-Abhath fi l-Hiwar al-Masihi al-Islami : I. al-‘Adl fi l-Masihiyyah wa l-Islam [Justice in Christianity and Islam], ed. ‘Adil Tiyudur & Mushayr Basil ‘Awn. Juniyah (Lebanon): al-Maktab al-Bulisiyyah, 1996 – see esp. Mahmud Hamdi Zaqzuq (Minister of Religious Endowments, Arab Republic of Egypt), "Mafhum al-‘Adl fi l-Tasawwur al-Islami [The Notion of Justice in Islamic Conception]," & Ridwan al-Sayyid, "Mas’alat al-‘Adl fi l-Fikr al-Islami al-Hadith wa l-Mu‘asir [The Question of Justice in Modern and in Contemporary Islamic Thought]").

III. Salam li-l-Bashar: al-Masihiyyah wa l-Islam Yanzuran ila l-Salam fi Ususihi wa Mashakilihi wa Ab‘adihi al-Muqbilah [Peace for Humans: Christianity and Islam examine the foundations and problems of peace...]. Juniyah: Paulist Press, 1997 – see esp. M. H. Zaqzuq’s piece.

*Mayer, Ann Elizabeth. Islam and Human Rights: Tradition and Politics. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991; 2nd ed. 1995; 3rd revised ed. 1999 [integrates politics, jurisprudence, and history; well documented study of the comparative legal analysis of civil and political rights; gives trans. of relevant sections of the 1979 & 1989 Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, and the 1993 Cairo Declaration of Human Rights in Islam; 2nd ed. has a good bibliography].

Mayer, Ann Elizabeth. "Universal Versus Islamic Human Rights: A Clash of Cultures or a Clash with a Construct?" Michigan Journal of International Law, 15 (1994) 317–402 [critiques the approach of cultural relativism].

Mazrui, Ali. "Islamic and Western Values." Foreign Affairs, 76 #5 (September–October 1997) 118–132.

McDonough, Sheila. Gandhi’s Responses to Islam. New Delhi: D.K. Printworld, 1994.

McDonough, Sheila. "Iqbal, Gandhi and Muhammad Ali." in D. Smith, ed., Islamic Studies: essays presented to Niyazi Berkes. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1975.

*Meier, Fritz. "The ultimate origin and the hereafter in Islam." in Girdhari L. Tikku, ed., Islam and its Cultural Divergence. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971.

Mitchell, Richard P. The Society of the Muslim Brothers. Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1969.

Mohideen, M. Mazzahim. "Islam, Nonviolence, and Interfaith Relations." in Glenn D. Paige, et al., eds., Islam and Nonviolence. Honolulu: 1993; 123–144.

Moinuddin, Hasan. The Charter of the Islamic Conference: The Legal and Economic Framework. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1987

*Monshipouri, Mahmood. Islamism, Secularism, and Human Rights in the Middle East. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1998.

Monshipouri, Mahmood. "Islamic Thinking and the Internationalization of Human Rights." The Muslim World, 84 #2–3 (1994) 217–239.

Mottahedeh, Roy P. "Toward an Islamic Theology of Toleration." in Tore Lindholm & Kari Vogt, eds., Islamic Law Reform and Human Rights. Copenhagen & Lund: Nordic Human Rights Publications, 1993; 25–36.

*Moussalli, Ahmad. "An Islamic Model for Political Conflict Resolution: Tahkim." in Paul Salem, ed., Conflict Resolution in the Arab World; 44–71.

Muhaiyaddeen, M.R. Bawa. Islam and World Peace: Explanations of a Sufi. Philadelphia: The Fellowship Press, 1987; introduction by Professor Annemarie Schimmel [optimistic vision of a Muslim spiritual teacher from Sri Lanka who taught near Philadelphia, PA, for many years].

*Murad, Abdal Hakim. "Islam and the New Millennium."

[lecture given at Belfast Central Mosque on March 1997; penetrating dissection of contemporary trends and future prospects, focusing on demography, religious change, and the environment].

*Murata, Sachiko. The Tao of Islam. A Sourcebook on Gender Relationships in Islamic Thought. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1992 [rich survey of inner teachings, serving as a corrective for Occidental Feminist interpretations of Islam].

Mutahhari, Murtada. "Islam and the Freedom of Thought and Belief," trans. ‘Ali Husayn. Al-Tawhid, 9 #2 (1412 / 1992) 143–63.

Muslehuddin, M. Morality: its concept and role in Islamic order. Lahore: Islamic Publications, 1978.

Muzzammil, Safia. Abul Kalam Azad: Islam and Humanity. Hyderabad, India: Al-Kausar Publishers, 1988 [useful study of his thought].

*al-Nabi, Malik ibn (Malek Bennabi, 1905–1973). Le probleme des idées dans le monde musulman. Algiers: al-Bayyinat, 1990 [completed in 1970; an original Algerian thinker concerned with the adaptation of Islamic values to modernity].

al-Nabi, Malik ibn. La Démocratie en Islam. Alger: Mosquee de Beni Messous, n.d. (late 1980s).

al-Nabi, Malik ibn. Mushkilat al-Thaqafah [The Culture Problem], trans. ‘Abd al-Sabur Shahin & ‘Umar Kamil Masqawi. 4th ed., Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1984 [first published Cairo, 1959; the relation of the individual to society, and of establishing a valid identity for Arab–Islamic societies].

Nadrat al-Na‘im, Makarim Akhlaq al-Rasul al-Karim [Bloom of Grace, Eminent Character Traits of the Noble Prophet ], ed. by a committee of religious scholars under supervision of H.E. Shaykh Salih b. ‘AbdAllah b. Hamid (al-khatib – Masjid al-Haram, Makkah). 12 vols., Makkah: Dar al-Wasilah li-l-Nashr wa l-Tawzi‘ , 1418 / 1997 [a comprehensive encyclopedia of Islamic morals based on the person of the Prophet Muhammad, drawn from authentic sources; forthcoming in English, Urdu, Malay & Swahili; English ed. distributed by the Islamic Society of North America, POBox 38, Plainfield, Indiana 46168; Fax 317–839-1840].

*an-Na‘im, Abdullahi Ahmed (School of Law, Emory University, Atlanta, GA). Toward an Islamic Reformation: Civil Liberties, Human Rights, and International Law. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1990; repr. 1996 [argues it is not possible to expand the meaning of the historical Shari‘ah’s major concepts (e.g., shura, ijma‘) and opts for the minor concept of naskh or ‘abrogation’ of Qur’anic texts, transforming it into a methodology for change].

an-Na‘im, Abdullahi Ahmed. Human Rights and Religious Values: An Uneasy Relationship? Grand Rapids: W.B. Eerdmans, 1995.

an-Na‘im, Abdullahi Ahmed. "Mahmud Muhammad Taha and the Crisis in Islamic Law Reform: Implications for Interreligious Relations." Journal of Ecumenical Studies, 25 #1 (Winter 1988) 1–21.

an-Na‘im, Abdullahi A. "Religious Minorities Under Islamic Law and the Limits of Cultural Relativism." Human Rights Quarterly, 9 (1987) 3f.

*Nassar, Nasif. Mafhum al-Ummah bayna l-Din wa l-Tarikh [The Concept of ‘Community’ between Religion and History]. Beirut: 1978 [reviews the notion of the Faith–Community in the Qur’an, Hadith, and later Islamic historical and philosophical writings].

*Nasr, Seyyid Hossein. "Metaphysical Roots of Tolerance and Intolerance: An Islamic Interpretation." in Mehdi Amin Razawi, & David Ambuel, eds., Philosophy, Religion, and the Question of Intolerance. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1997; 42–51.

*Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. Traditional Islam in the Modern World. London & New York: Kegan Paul International, 1987.

Nasr, Seyyid Hossein. "Islam and the Question of Violence." Alserat [al-Sirat], 13 / 2 (1987) 26–29 [published in London by the Muhammadi Trust of Great Britain and Northern Ireland].

*Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. Ideals and Realities of Islam. 1st ed., London: George Allen & Unwin, 1966 [excellent survey of Islamic Faith and Tradition, that has stood the test of time].

Nieuwenhuijze, C.A.O. van. "The Ummah – An Analytic Approach." Studia Islamica, 10 (1959) 5–22.

*Nursi, Bediüzzaman Said (1876–1960). Risale-i Nur Kulliyati [Epistle of Light], vol. I–II. Istanbul: Nesil Yayinlari, 1996; and translated by Sukran Vahide, Istanbul: 1993 [collection of the writings of an important Turkish reformist trained in the Khalidi Naqshbandi Order, who inspires the current Nurcu movements; consisting mainly of commentaries on the Qur’an from which his views on nonviolent action may be gleaned].

*Osman, Mohamed Fathi. The Children of Adam: an Islamic Perspective on Pluralism. Washington, D.C.: Center for Muslim-Christian Understanding, Georgetown University, 1996.

*Paige, Glenn D., Chaiwat Satha–Anand & Sarah Gilliatt, eds. Islam and Nonviolence. Honolulu: Matsunaga Institute for Peace, University of Hawai’i, 1993 [report on an international seminar on Islam and nonviolence, held in Bali, Indonesia, Feb.14–19, 1986]. — see esp., Razi Ahmad (past secretary of National Gandhi Museum, New Delhi), "Islam, Nonviolence, and Global Transformation" 27–57; Abdurrahman Wahid (chairman, Nahdlatul Ulama, Jakarta), "Islam, Nonviolence, and National Transformation" 53–57; Mamoon al-Rasheed (founder of Comprehensive Rural Educational, Social, Cultural and Economic Centre, in Dhaka, Bangladesh), "Islam, Nonviolence, and Social Transformation" 59–107; Khalijah Mohd. Salleh (Prof. of Physics, Universiti Kebangsaan, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia), "Islam, Nonviolence, and Women" 109–122 [available from Fellowship of Reconciliation, Nyack, NY].

Peermahomed Ebrahim Trust. Islam and Peace. Karachi: Peermahomed Ebrahim Trust, 1975.

Peyretti, Enrico. "L’Islam, la violenza, l’Occidente [Islam, Violence, and the West]." Azione nonviolenta, Rivista mensile del Movimento Nonviolento fondata da Aldo Capitini nel 1964, 35 #5 (May 1998) 4–7 [cover article for issue L’Islam e la nonviolenza, reflecting on Western mis-comprehension of Islam’s nonviolent potential].

H.R.H. The Prince of Wales. "Islam and the West" [lecture given at the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, Oct. 27, 1993]. Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies, 1993; 28p.

al-Qaradawi, Yusuf. Ghayr al-Muslimin fi l-Mujtama‘ al-Islami [Non–Muslims in Islamic Society]. Cairo: 1977.

*al-Qishtayni, Khalid (Iraqi researcher & journalist). Dalil al-Muwatin li-l-Jihad al-Madani [The Citizen’s Guide to ‘Civil Jihad’]. London: Dar al-Rafid, 1998 [expands his ideas on peaceful civil struggle as a viable means for social and political change in the Arab-Islamic world].

al-Qishtayni, Khalid. "Violent and Nonviolent Struggle in Arab History." in R. Crow, et al., eds., Arab Nonviolent Political Struggle in the Middle East (Boulder & London, 1990) 9–24.

*al-Qishtayni, Khalid. Nahwa l-La‘Unf: al-Muqawamat al-Madaniyyah ‘abra l-Tarikh [Towards Nonviolence: Civil Resistance throughout History]. Amman: Dar al-Karmil, 1984; repr. East Jerusalem: Palestinian Center for the Study of Nonviolence, 1986 [examines the relevance of nonviolent ‘civil resistance’ as an effective strategy for change in the Arab world].

Qureshi, M.H. "Islam and non-violence." Paper presented at the Seminar on Nonviolent Theory and Practice, April 2–4, 1998; Gandhi–Ashram, New Delhi; 3p.

Qutb, Sayyid. Islam and Universal Peace. Indianapolis: American Trust Publications, 1993.

*Qutb, Sayyid. ‘Adalah al-Ijtima‘iyyah fi l-Islam. Cairo: 1949; 5th ed. 1964. See William E. Shepard, Sayyid Qutb and Islamic Activism: A Translation and Critical Analysis of Social Justice in Islam. New York: E.J. Brill, 1996 [excellent translation giving a nuanced study of Qutb’s theological and ideological tendencies].

*al-Rabi‘u, Turki ‘Ali (Syrian researcher). al-‘Unf wa l-Muqaddas [Violence and the Sacred]. Beirut: 1994.

al-Rabi‘u, Turki ‘Ali. al-Islam wa Malhamat al-Khalq wa l-Usturah [Islam, the Slaughter of Humans, and Myth]. Beirut: 1992.

*Rahman, Fazlur. "The Principle of Shura and the Role of the Ummah in Islam." in Mumtaz Ahmad, ed., State, Politics and Islam. Indianapolis, IN: American Trust Publications, 1986; 87–96.

Rahman, Fazlur. "Law and Ethics in Islam." in Ethics in Islam: Ninth Giorgia Levi Della Vida Biennial Conference, ed. Richard G. Hovanissian. Malibu, CA: Undena Publication, 1985.

*Rahman, Fazlur. Major Themes of the Qur’an. Minneapolis: Biblioteca Islamica, 1980.

Ramsbotham, Oliver. "Islam, Christianity, and Forcible Humanitarian Intervention." Ethics and International Affairs, 12 (1998) 81–102.

al-Rasheed, Mamoon. "Islam, Nonviolence, and Social Transformation." in Glenn D. Paige, et al., eds., Islam and Nonviolence. Honolulu: 1993; 59–107.

Renard, John. "Al-Jihad al-Akbar: Notes on a Theme in Islamic Spirituality." The Muslim World, 78 #3–4 (1988) 225–42.

*Rosen, Lawrence. "Responsibility and Compensatory Justice in Arab Culture and Law." in Benn Lee & Greg Urban, eds., Semiotics, Self, and Society. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 1989;

Rosenthal, Franz. " ‘I Am You’—Individual Piety and Society in Islam." in A. Banani & S. Vryonis, eds., Individualism and Conformity in Classical Islam. Wiesbaden: Harrasowitz, 1977.

*Rosenthal, Franz. Knowledge Triumphant: the Concept of Knowledge in Medieval Islam. Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1970 [invaluable survey of an essential component of Muslim culture].

Rosenthal, Franz. The Muslim Concept of Freedom Prior to the Nineteenth Century. Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1960.

Rosenthal, Franz. "On Suicide in Islam." Journal of the American Oriental Society, 66 (1946) 239–59 [survey of Qur’an, Hadith, & philosophical data].

*Sachedina, Abdulaziz A. (Professor of Religion, The University of Virginia). "Justifications of Violence in Islamic Tradition." In J. Partout Burns, ed., War and Its Discontents: Pacifism and Quietism in the Abrahamic Traditions. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 1996; 122–160.

Sachedina, Abdulaziz. "Political Implications of the Islamic Notion of ‘Supersession’ as Reflected in Islamic Jurisprudence." Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations, 7 #2 (July 1996); 159–168.

Sachedina, Abdulaziz. "Can Classical Islamic Legal Theory Become the Source for Conflict Resolution in Modern Times?" in Examining the Merits of Conflict Resolution as an Academic Discipline; Proceedings of the First Conference of the Joint Program on Conflict Resolution (Cairo, Nov. 12–14, 1991) 31–42.

*Sachedina, Abdulaziz. "Freedom of Conscience and Religion in the Qur’an." in Human Rights and the Conflict of Cultures: Western and Islamic Perspectives on Religious Liberty. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1988; 53–90.

*Sachedina, Abdulaziz. "The Creation of a Just Social Order in Islam." in Mumtaz Ahmad, ed., State, Politics and Islam. Indianapolis, IN: American Trust Publications, 1986; 115–132.

Sachedina, Abdulaziz. "Jews, Christians, and Muslims According to the Qur’an." in N.M. Vaporis, ed., Orthodox Christians and Muslims. Brookline, MA: Holy Cross Orthodox Press, 1986; 105–120.

Sahlieh, Sami Aldeeb Abu. Les Musulmans face aux droits de l’homme: Religion et droit et politique. Etude et documents. Bochum, Germany: Verlag Dr. Dieter Winkler, 1994.

Sahlieh, Sami Aldeeb Abu. "Liberté religieuse et apostasie dans l’Islam." Praxis juridique et religion, 3 (1986) 43–76.

Sahlieh, Sami Aldeeb Abu. "Les Droits de l’homme et l’Islam." Revue général de droit international public, 89 (1985) 625–716.

Said, Abdul Aziz. "Human Rights in Islamic Perspectives." in Adamantia Pollis & Peter Schwab, eds., Human Rights: Cultural and Ideological Perspectives. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1980.

Said, Abdul Aziz. "Precept and Practice of Human Rights in Islam." Universal Human Rights, 1 #1 (January 1979) 63–79.

Sa‘id, Ustadh Jawdat (Bi’r ‘Ajam, Syrian Arab Republic). "An Investigation into the Bases for the Concepts of ‘Law’ and ‘Religion’," trans. ‘Afra Jalabi. forthcoming in Journal of Law and Religion. [On Jawdat Sa‘id’s thought, see above: Ibrahim Mahmud, al-Hijrah ila l-Islam; & Karim Crow, "Between Prophets and History... ," Studies in Contemporary Islam, forthcoming.]

*Sa‘id, Jawdat. Madhhab Ibn Adam al-Awwal: Mushkilat al-‘Unf fi l-‘Amal al-Islami [The Doctrine of Adam’s First Son: the Problem of Violence in Islamic Action]. 1st ed. Damascus: 1966; 5th ed., Beirut: Dar al-Fikr al-Mu‘asir, 1993; this is the first volume of his six volume series Sunan Taghyir al-Nafs wa l-Mujtama‘ [Programs for Transforming Self and Society] [a creative vision drawn from original Islamic sources, of Islam as a peaceable method for social change].

See other works by Jawdat Sa‘id re-printed in this series; e.g., ‘Hatta Yughayyiru Ma bi-Anfusihim’ [‘Until They Change What is Within Themselves’], introduction by Malik ibn Nabi, 1972; 7th pr. 1993; & al-Insan hina yakunu Kallan wa hina yakunu ‘Adlan [The Human Being: when he is a wearisome burden and when he is just], 1969; repr. 1993.

*Sa‘id, Jawdat. ‘La Ikraha Fi l-Din!’ [‘No Coercion in Faith!’—Studies and Researches in Islamic Thought], ed. Muhammad Nafisah. Damascus: al-‘Ilm wa l-Salam li-l-Dirasat wa l-Nashr, 1997 [collection of recent short pieces, lectures, & interviews, published by a group of Syrian students].

*Sa‘id, Jawdat. Kun ka-Ibni Adam! [Be like Adam’s (First) Son!]. Damascus & Beirut: Dar al-Fikr, 1997 [the ‘second part’ of his Madhhab Ibn Adam al-Awwal, treating a variety of current issues relevant to the use of force and violence in social change and peace building].

Sa‘id Jawdat. Majalis Bi’r ‘Ajam [Two volumes of eleven ‘round table’ discussions with Ustadh Sa‘id convened in his village near Qunaytrah during 1993]: I. Mafhum al-Taghyir [The Concept of Change] & II. Riyah al-Taghyir [Winds of Change]. Beirut: Dar al-Fikr al-Mu‘asir, 1995.

*Saiyidain, K.G. Islam, the Religion of Peace. New Delhi: Islam and the Modern Age Society, 1976; 2nd ed.: Dr. Abid Husain Memorial Trust, Har-Anand Publications, 1994 [sensitive overview].

Salem, Paul, ed. Conflict Resolution in the Arab World: Selected Essays. Beirut: American University of Beirut Press, 1997 [papers from the Larnaca, Cyprus, conference of July 1993; distributed in North America by Syracuse University Press.]

Salleh, Khalijah Mohd. "Islam, Nonviolence, and Women." in Glenn D. Paige, et al., eds., Islam and Nonviolence. Honolulu: 1993; 109–122.

Salmi, Ralph H., Cesar Adib Majul & George K. Tanham, eds. Islam and Conflict Resolution: Theories and Practices. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1998.

Sardar, Zia. Postmodernism and the Other: The New Imperialism of Western Culture. London: Pluto Press, 1998 [critiques postmodern Western dominance as a continuation of its distorted imagination of other civilizations, and challenges Muslims to re-appropriate the ‘Islamic paradigm’].

Sardar, Zia. How We Know: ‘Ilm and the Revival of Knowledge. London: Grey Seal, 1991 [urges the revival of an Islamic science shaped by the Islamic paradigm and holistic values, to rescue Muslims from postmodern relativism].

*Sardar, Ziauddin. "The Other Jihad: Muslim Intellectuals and Their Responsibilities." Inquiry, 2 #10 (London, Oct. 1985) 40–45.

Satha-Anand, Chaiwat (or Haji Qader Muheideen; Faculty of Political Science, Thammasat University, Bangkok, Thailand; founder of the Peace Information Center). Islam e nonviolenza. Rome: Gruppo Abele, 1997 [86p., Italian translations of several of the following articles].

Satha-Anand, Chaiwat. "Islam e Pace." in Rocca, #12, #14, #15 (1996).

Satha-Anand, Chaiwat. "The Politics of Forgiveness: Islamic Teachings and Gandhi’s Teachings." in The Nonviolent Crescent: Two Essays on Islam and Nonviolence, 9–24. Alkmaar, the Netherlands: International Fellowship of Reconciliation, 1996; occasional paper ‘Patterns in Reconciliation’ #3.

Satha-Anand, Chaiwat. "The Islamic Tunes of Gandhi’s Ahimsa." in M. Kumar, ed. Nonviolence, Contemporary Issues and Challenges (New Delhi: 1994) 107–115.

*Satha-Anand, Chaiwat. "Core Values for Peacemaking in Islam: The Prophet’s Practice as Paradigm." in Elise Boulding, ed., Building Peace in the Middle East: Challenges for States and Civil Society. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1994; 295–302.

Satha-Anand, Chaiwat. "From Violent to Nonviolent Discourse." in Elise Boulding, Clovis Brigagao, & Kevin Clements, eds., Peace Culture and Society: Transnational Research and Dialogue. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1991; 124–132.

Satha-Anand, Chaiwat. "Towards a Peace Culture in Asia." UNESCO Yearbook on Peace and Conflict Studies. Paris: 1991.

*Satha-Anand, Chaiwat. "The Nonviolent Crescent: Eight Theses on Muslim Nonviolent Actions." [Paper given at United Nations University International Seminar on Islam and Nonviolence’ in Bali, Indonesia, Feb. 14–19, 1986.] Printed in: R.E. Crow, et. al., eds., Arab Nonviolent Political Struggle, 25–40; & in G. Paige, et. al., eds., Islam and Nonviolence, 7–26; also repr. in IFOR occasional papers ‘Patterns in Reconciliation’ #3 (1996); & translated into Bahasa Indonesia as "Bulan Sabit Tanba Kekerasan: Delapan Tesis Tindak Kekerasan Dalam Islam," in Menggapai Dunia Damai, ed. Mochtar Lubis (Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 1988).

*al-Sayyid, Ridwan. "Contemporary Muslim Thought and Human Rights." Islamochristiana [Rome: Pontificio Istituto di Studi Arabi e D’Islamistica], 21 (1995) 27–41.

*al-Sayyid, Ridwan. al-Ummah wa l-Jama‘ah wa l-Sultah: Dirasat fi l-Fikr al-Siyasi al-‘Arabi al-Islami [Community, Assembly, and Authority: Studies in Arab–Islamic Political Thought]. Beirut: Dar Iqra’, 1984 [important scrutiny of the notion of ‘Community’ and its relation with political authority in classical Muslim experience].

*Schimmel, Annemarie. Deciphering the Signs of God: A Phenomenological Approach to Islam. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1994 [esp. p.178–215 for the anthroposophy of Islam].

Shahrur, Muhammad (Professor of Engineering, Damascus University; 1938— ). al-Kitab wa l-Qur’an [The Book and The Qur’an]; includes appendix by Ja‘far Dakk al-Bab, Kitab Asrar al-Lisan al-‘Arabi [Secrets of the Arabic Tongue]. 4th revised ed.; Damascus: al-Ahali li-l-Tiba‘ah wa l-Nashr wa l-Tawzi‘, 1992 [affirms a secular liberal case for Islam, and its relevance for contemporary thought; the first volume in his trilogy].

Shahrur, Muhammad. Dirasat Islamiyyah Mu‘asirah fi l-Dawlah wa l-Mujtama‘ [Contemporary Islamic Studies on State and Society]. Damascus: al-Ahali li-l-Tiba‘ah wa l-Nashr wa l-Tawzi‘, 1994.

*Shahrur, Muhammad. al-Islam wa l-Iman: Manzumat al-Qiyam [‘Submission’ and Faith: the System for Accomplishment]. Damascus: al-Ahali li-l-Tiba‘ah wa l-Nashr wa l-Tawzi‘, 1996.

Shaida, S.A. "Islamic Ethics: Some Theoretical Questions." Journal of Objective Studies, 1 (1989) 95–100.

Shaikh, M.A. "Ethics of Decision Making in Islamic and Western Environments." American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 5 (1988) 115–128.

el-Shakankiri, Mohamed. "Loi divine et loi humaine et droit dans l’histoire juridique de l’Islam." Studia Islamica, 59 (1981) 161–182.

*Shaker, Sallama. "Development and Islamic Values." in Elise Boulding, ed., Building Peace in the Middle East. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1994; 237–240.

*Shayegan, Daryush. Cultural Schizophrenia: Islamic Societies Confronting the West, trans. John Howe. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1997 [portrays the relation between Muslim culture and Western modernity, and the consequences induced in Muslim identity].

Shepard, William. "The Doctrine of Progress in Some Modern Muslim Writings." Bulletin of the Henry Martyn Institute of Islamic Studies, 10 #4 (Oct.–Dec. 1991) 51–64.

Sherif, Mahmoud El- (former Minister of Information, Jordan). "Relevance of the Doctrine of Non-Violence to Contemporary Middle East." al–Nadwah (Bulletin of the World Affairs Council, Amman) vol. VII #3 (July, 1996 / Safar 1417) 14–19 [also published in the Jordanian Weekly The Star, May 9, 1996; on irrelevance of Gandhi’s ideas to the Arab world].

*Shifferd, Kent D. "The Greater Jihad and Twentieth–Century Islamic Pacifism." in Religion, War, and Peace. Stevens-Point, WI: Wisconsin Institute for Peace and Conflict Studies, 1997; 99–106 [paper presented in Conference at Ripon College, Nov. 1996].

Siddiqui, Ataullah. Christian-Muslim Dialogue in the Twentieth Century. London: Macmillan, 1997.

Singh, N.K. Peace Through Nonviolent Action in Islam. Delhi: Adam Publishers & Distributors, 1995 [not seen].

Smith, Daniel L. "The Rewards of Allah." Journal of Peace Research, 26 #4 (1989) 385–98.

Smock, David R., ed. Perspectives on Pacifism: Christian, Jewish, & Muslim Views on Nonviolence & International Conflict. Herndon, VA: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1995.

Sorush, ‘Abd al-Karim [see V. Vakili].

*Stowasser, Barbara. "The Status of Women in Early Islam." in Freda Hussain, ed., Muslim Women. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1984; 11–43.

Strawson, John. "A Western Question to the Middle East: ‘Is There a Human Rights Discourse in Islam?’" Arab Studies Quarterly, 19 (Winter 1997) 31–58.

Tabandeh, Sultanhussein. A Muslim Commentary on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, trans. F.J. Goulding. Guildford, England: F.J. Goulding, 1970 [holds that international standards of human rights were invented first by Islam].

Taha, Mahmoud Mohamed. The Second Message of Islam, trans. Abdullahi Ahmed an-Na‘im. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1987 [controversial interpretation of Islamic essentials by a Sufi leader, publicly hanged in Khartoum in 1985; argues for the Meccan priority of Islamic precedents].

Tayyebulla, Maulana (President of Assam Congress from 1940–48). Islam and Non-Violence. Allahabad: Kitabistan, 1959; 103p.; forward by Sri Prakasa [written in 1944 under British detention in Jorhat; Tayyebulla supported the All India Congress & Muslim–Hindu unity, and dedicated this work to Gandhi; he argues for the essentially nonviolent character of the Prophet Muhammad’s activities, and compares Qur’anic ethics with the Bhagwat Gita].

Thompson, Henry O. World Religions in War and Peace. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 1988; see section on "Islam" 37–58.

*Tibi, Bassam. Islam and the Cultural Accommodation of Social Change, trans. Clare Krojzl. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990 [examines how Islam responds on the theological and ideological levels to the modernization process].

Tibi, Bassam. The Crisis of Modern Islam: A Preindustrial Culture in the Scientific Technological Age, trans. Judith von Silvers. Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1988.

Universal Islamic Declaration of Human Rights (UIDHR). London: The Islamic Council, 1981. Prepared by representatives from Egypt, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and other conservative Muslim countries under the direction of the Islamic Council, and presented to UNESCO in Paris in a bi-lingual Arabic & English format. The two versions diverge in several points; see two translations of the Arabic version in IslamoChristiana 9 (1983) 103–120 (English) & 121–140 (French).

*Unnithan, T.K.N. & Yogendra Singh. "Islam and the Tradition." in Traditions of Nonviolence. New Delhi: Arnold Heinemann India, 1973; 202–279.

Vakili, Valla. "Debating Religion and Politics in Iran: The Political Thought of Abdolkarim Sorush." New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1996 [Occasional Paper Series, no. 2].

Volkan, Vamik (Director, Center for the Study of Mind and Human Interaction, University of Virginia School of Medicine). Bloodlines: From Ethnic Pride to Ethnic Terrorism. New York: Farrar, Straus & Ciroux, 1997.

*Volkan, Vamik. The Need to Have Enemies and Allies: From Clinical Practice to International Relations. Northvale, NJ: J. Aronson, Inc., 1988 [a leading authority in psycho-politics studies the unconscious projection of fears and hidden resistances in inter-group conflict].

*Wahid, Hajji Abdurrahman (Chairman, Nahdlatul Ulama, Jakarta). "Islam, Nonviolence, and National Transformation." in Glenn D. Paige, et al., eds., Islam and Nonviolence. Honolulu: 1993; 53–57.

Zartman, I. William. "A Quest for a Model for Conflict Resolution\Management in the Relations Between the States and the Islamic Movements." in Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad & Ahmed Yousef, eds., Islam and the West: A Dialog (Springfield, VA: 1998) 214–244.

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2. Peace and War in Islam

*‘AbdAllah ibn al-Mubarak (d. AH 181 / CE 798). Kitab al-Jihad [On ‘Sacred Struggle’], ed. Nazih Hammad. Tunis: al-Dar al-Tunisiyyah li-l-Nashr, 1978 [archaic collection of valuable traditions by a leading mujahid–ascetic, showing the centrality of jihad as a spiritual duty; the author also compiled the important Kitab al-Zuhd wa l-Raqa’iq / On Renunciation and Softening the Heart].

Abedi, Mehdi & Gary Legenhausen, eds. Jihad and Shahadat: Struggle and Martyrdom in Islam. Houston: Institute for Research and Islamic Studies, 1986. — See Ayatullah Murtaza Mutahhari, "Defense: The Essence of Jihad."

Abu Sulayman, Abdul–Hamid. Toward an Islamic Theory of International Relations: New Directions for Islamic Methodology and Thought. Herndon, VA: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1987 [theoretical review of Muslim doctrines by a progressive modernist].

Abu Zahrah, Muhammad. Concept of War in Islam, trans. Muhammad al-Hady & Taha Omar. Cairo: Ministry of Awqaf, 1961 [general survey of classical juristic views].

Arnaldèz, Roger, ed. Les religions et la guerre. Paris: Cerf, 1991. — See Moustapha Zemili, & Mohamed Missaoui, p.373f.

*Ayoub, Mahmoud. "Jihad: A Source of Power and Framework of Authority in Islam." Bulletin of the Institute of Middle Eastern Studies, International University of Japan [Tokyo], VI (1995) 205–232 [concise evaluation by a deeply informed scholar, critiques the dominance of juristic views on this issue].

*al–Banna’, Jamal. "al-Faridah al-Gha’ibah": Jihad al-Sayf am Jihad al-‘Aql? ["The Neglected Duty": Struggle by the Sword or Struggle of the Mind?]. Cairo: Dar Thabit, 1404/1984.

[The original work al-Faridah al-Gha’ibah by the Egyptian Muslim activist & engineer Muhammad ‘Abd al-Salam Faraj, characterized military jihad as an ‘unfulfilled duty’ incumbent on all Muslims; it was the manifesto of the group which assassinated Anwar al-Sadat. For an English trans., see: Johannes J.G. Jansen, The Neglected Duty: The Creed of Sadat’s Assassins and Islamic Resurgence in the Middle East, New York: Macmillan, 1986; 159–230.]

*al-Buti, Muhammad Sa‘id Ramadan (Professor of Theology, Damascus University). Jihad in Islam, How to Understand and Practice It, trans. & abridged Munzer Adel Absi. Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1415/1995; al-Jihad fi l-Islam: kayfa nafhamuhu wa kayfa numarisuhu? Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1995.

Charnay, Jean–Paul. L’Islam et la guerre. Paris: Fayard, 1986 [historical & geo-political study].

*Chittick, William C. "The Theological Roots of Peace and War According to Islam." The Islamic Quarterly, 34 #3 (1990) 145–163.

*Churchill, R. Paul. "Interpreting the Jihad of Islam: Militarism versus Muslim Pacifism." in The ACORN , Journal of the Gandhi–King Society,6 #2 (Fall 1991) 20–28 [useful overview].

Crépon, Pierre. Les religions et la guerre. Paris: Albin Michel, 1991.

Davis, Joyce M. Between Jihad and Salaam: Profiles in Islam. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997 [seventeen short interviews with Muslim activists giving a generally superficial western journalistic view of Islamic political activism couched in religious terms].

Dajani-Shakeel, Hadia, & Ronald A. Meissier, eds. The Jihad and Its Times. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press, 1991.

*Donner, Fred. "Sources of Islamic Conceptions of War." in James T. Johnson & John Kelsay, eds. Just War and Jihad: Historical and Theoretical Perspectives on War and Peace in Western and Islamic Traditions. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.

Esposito, John L., ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Modern Islamic World. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995 [authoritative state of the art surveys of contemporary trends and movements in Islam; lacks articles on ‘peace’ or ‘reconciliation’; includes articles on ‘Jihad’ & ‘Terrorism’].

*FadlAllah, Shaykh Muhammad Husayn. al-Islam wa Mantiq al-Quwwah [Islam and the Logic of Force]. 2nd ed. Beirut: 1981 [written in 1976 by the ideological theorist of the Lebanese Hizbullah, & vice-president of the central council in Tehran of the international Hizbullah; explores conditions for the use of force and political violence under the constraints of oppression and invasion].

Faraj, Muhammad ‘Abd al-Salam. al-Faridah al-Gha’ibah. [see al-Banna’, Jamal].

Gerber, Haim. Islam, Guerrilla War, and Revolution: A Study in Comparative Social History. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1988.

al-Ghunami, Mohammad Talaat. The Muslim Conception of International Law and the Western Approach. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1968.

Haddad, Hassan S. (Professor of History, Xavier College, Chicago). "War and Peace in Christian and Islamic Traditions." Keynote address presented on Oct. 15, 1988, at the conference ‘In Search of Common Ground: Peace Within Islamic Traditions’, Iowa Peace Institute; in Cedar Rapids, Iowa; 13p. typedraft.

Hamidullah, Muhammad. The Muslim Conduct of State. 7th ed., Lahore: Sh. M. Ashraf, 1977.

Jad al-Haqq, Shaykh Jad al-Haqq ‘Ali (former Rector of al-Azhar Mosque). Bayan ila l-Nas [Clear Discourse to People]. 2 vols. Cairo: al-Azhar, 1984 & 1988 [see esp. the chapter on jihad in vol. I, which establishes an understanding of the ethics of nonviolence in Islam].

Jandora, John W. Militarism in Arab Society: An Historiographical and Bibliographical Sourcebook. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997 — see esp. the essay on "The Struggle within and without the Islamic Domain (Fitna and Jihad)" [useful as a bibliographic handbook; suffers from methodological generalization in his historical narrative when handling ethno-cultural components].

Jani, Mohammad Shah Bin. "Sayyid Qutb’s View of Jihad: An Analytical Study of his Major Works." Ph.D. Dissertation, Centre for the Study of Islam and christian-Muslim Relations, Selly Oak Colleges (Birmingham, UK), 1998.

Jansen, J.J.G. "Mudjahid." Encyclopaedia of Islam, new edition, VII 290–92.

Johnson, James T. & John Kelsay, eds. Cross, Crescent and Sword: The Justification and Limitation of War in Western and Islamic Tradition. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.

Johnson, James T. & George Weigel. Just War and the Gulf War. Washington, D.C.: Ethics and Public Policy Center, 1991.

*Jourdan, François. "Guerre et violence dans le Coran et la tradition islamique." in Alternatives Non Violentes, #83 Violence et Non-Violence en Islam. Saint-Etienne (France): Institut de recherche sur la resolution non-violente des conflits, 1992; 28–37.

*Khadduri, Majid. The Islamic Conception of Justice. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1984; see esp. 161–173 ‘Justice among Nations’ & 174–191 ‘Social Justice’.

*Khadduri, Majid. articles: "Harb – Legal aspect," III 180–1; & "Maslaha," VI 738–40. Encyclopaedia of Islam, new edition.

Khadduri, Majid. The Islamic Law of Nations: al-Shaybani’s Siyar. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1966 [useful translation & study of an early 2nd/8th century legal theory of jihad].

*Khadduri, Majid. War and Peace in the Law of Islam. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1955.

Khan, Inamullah. "Nucleur War and the Defense of Peace: The Muslim View." International Peace Research Newsletter, 23 #2 (April 1985) 9–11 [published for the IPRA by Gandhi Peace Foundation, Delhi, India].

Khomeini, Ruhollah. Islam and Revolution: Writings and Declarations of Imam Khomeini, trans. & annotated by Hamid Algar. Berkeley: Mizan, 1981.

Lawrence, Bruce. "Holy War (jihad) in Islamic Religion and Nation–State Ideologies." in J. Kelsay & J. Turner, eds., Just War and Jihad. New York: Greenwood Press, 1991.

Majma‘ al-Buhuth al-Islamiyyah. al-Mu’tamar al-Rabi‘: al-Jihad. Cairo: al-Azhar, 1388 / 1968 [4th Conference of The Society for Islamic Research, on jihad ‘sacred struggle’, meant to mobilize Arab public opinion against Israel; gives a mixture of moderate and hard line approaches].

*Martin, Richard C. "The Religious Foundations of War, Peace, and Statecraft in Islam." in J. Kelsay & J. Turner, eds., Just War and Jihad.

*Mawdudi, Abu l-A‘la. Jihad fi Sabil Allah [‘Sacred Struggle’ in God’s Path]. Lahore: Idarat Tarjuman al-Qur’an, 1988 [first published in 1927 as al-Jihad fi l-Islam; a major study in Urdu of the conditions and requirements for jihad in Islamic tradition. See one section trans. into Arabic as al- Jihad fi Sabil Allah (Cairo: 1977), along with essays by Hasan al-Banna & Sayyid Qutb].

Mayer, Ann E. "War and Peace in the Islamic Tradition and International Law." in J. Kelsay & J. Turner, eds., Just War and Jihad.

*al-Mikrad, Fahd Hamad. Dirasat Siyasiyyah fi l-‘Alaqat al-Dawliyyat al-Islamiyyah [A Political Study of Islamic International Relations]. Kuwait: Maktabat al-Fani al-Hadith, 1993 [an informed analysis of major aspects of classical Islamic approaches to international relations; see esp. 63–72 on the use of force and its sanctions, 133–42 on theories of peace, 161–219 on jihad and war & peace in the Shari‘ah].

Mir, Mustansir. "Jihad In Islam." in H. Dajani-Shakeel & R.A. Meissier, eds., The Jihad and Its Times. Ann Arbor: 1991.

Naby, Eden. "The Concept of Jihad in Opposition to Communist Rule: Turkestan & Afghanistan." Studies in Comparative Communism, 21 #3–4 (1986) 287–300.

Peters, Rudolph, trans.& ed. Jihad in Medieval and Modern Islam: The Chapter on Jihad from Averroes’ Legal Handbook Bidayat al-Mujtahid, and the Treatise Koran and Fighting by the Late Shaykh al–Azhar, Mahmud Shaltut. Leiden: E.J.Brill, 1977. + sections repr. in R. Peters, Jihad in Classical and Modern Islam. Princeton, NJ: Marcus Wiener Publishers, 1996; see trans. of Ibn Rushd (d.1198), Bidayat al-Mujtahid 27–42, & M. Shaltut (d. 1963), al-Qur’an wa l-Qital 60–101.

Peters, Rudolph. Islam and Colonialism: The Doctrine of Jihad in Modern History. The Hague, Paris, Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter, 1979.

Qutb, Sayyid. see: M. Shah Bin Jani, "Sayyid Qutb’s View of Jihad...;" & William E. Shepard, Sayyid Qutb and Islamic Activism ... Analysis of Social Justice in Islam. New York: E.J. Brill, 1996.

*Rajaee, Farhang. Islamic Values and World View: Khomeyni on Man, the State and International Politics. Lanham, MD & London: 1983 [insightful study of Khomeinist international thought].

*al-Sayyid, Ridwan. al-Jama‘ah wa l-Mujtama‘ wa l-Dawlah: sultat al-idiyulujiyya fi l-fikr al-siyasi al-‘arabi al-islami [The Community, the Society and the State: the Authority of Ideology in Arab–Islamic Political Thought]. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-‘Arabi, 1997.

*Schacht, Joseph. "Katl." Encyclopaedia of Islam, new edition, IV 766–72 [classical Islamic legal positions on killing, conflict & war (qatl & qital), and on punishment and execution].

Shadid, Muhammad. al-Jihad fi l-Islam. 7th ed. Cairo: al-Risalah, 1985.

Shariati, Ali. Martyrdom: Arise and Bear Witness, trans. Ali Asghar Ghassemy. n.p.: Ministry of Islamic Guidance, March 1981.

Smock, David R., ed. Religious Perspectives on War: Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Attitudes Toward Force After the Gulf War. Washington D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 1992. — see M.M. Ali & Mumtaz Ahmad, "The Islamic Perspective" 22–28.

Tibi, Bassam. "Jihad." in R.S. Powers & W.B. Vogele, eds., Protest, Power, and Change. New York & London: Garland, 1997; 277–281.

Tibi, Bassam. "War and Peace in Islam." in Terry Nardin, ed., The Ethics of War and Peace, Religious and Secular Perspectives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996; 128–145.

Turner, James. The Holy War Idea in Western and Islamic Traditions. College Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997.

Tyan, E. "Djihad." Encyclopaedia of Islam, new edition, II 538–40.

*al–‘Unf al–Usuli [The Violent Fundamentalism]. London & Beirut: Riad El–Rayyes Books Ltd., 1995 [in the series Kitab al-Naqid; reprint of articles appearing over seven years of publication in al–Naqid]. Three vols.: 1. al–Ibda‘ min Nawafudh Jahannam / The Gates of Hell. 2. Muwajahat al-Sayf wa l-Qalam / The Clash of the Sword and the Pen. 3. Nawwab al-Ard wa l-Sama’ / As In Heaven or In Earth. [Seminal articles by leading Arab thinkers, including Ghali Shukri, Hasan Hanafi, Ayatullah Muhammad Husayn FadlAllah, & Muhammad Shahrur.]

Vaux, Kenneth L. "Islam, Jihad, and Iraq’s Holy War." in K.L. Vaux, Ethics and the Gulf War: religion, rhetoric, and righteousness. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1992.

Watt, W. Montgomery. "Islamic Conceptions of the Holy War." in Thomas Murphy, ed., The Holy War. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1976; 141–156.

Weber, Edgard. Croisade d’hier, Jihad d’aujourd’hui. Paris: Cerf, 1989.

*al-Zuhayli, Wahbah. Athar al-Harb fi l-Fiqh al-Islami [The Influence of War within Islamic Jurisprudence].

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3. Regional

Abduvakhitov, Abdujabbar. "Islamic Revivalism in Uzbekistan." in Dale F. Eickerman, ed., Russia’s Muslim Frontiers: New Directions in Cross-Cultural Analysis. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993; 79–97.

Albert, David H., ed. Nonviolent Struggle in the Middle East. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1985 [reprints articles by R.S. Kennedy on the Golani Druze, & Mubarak Awad on Palestine].

*Albert, David H., ed.,with intro. Tell the American People: Perspectives on the Iranian Revolution. new revised ed., Philadelphia, PA: Movement for a New Society, 1980 [on the nonviolent character of the overthrow of the Pahlavi Shah].

Arjomand, Said Amir. The Turban for the Crown: the Islamic Revolution in Iran. New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988.

Awad, Mubarak & Paul Hubers. "Nonviolence in the Intifada: Long-Term Costs and Values." Peace Research, 25 #3 (August 1993) 61–68 [paper presented at the International Peace Research Association Conference, Kyoto, Japan, July 1992].

Awad, Mubarak. "Nonviolence and the Intifada." in Graeme MacQueen, ed., Unarmed Forces: Nonviolent Action in Central America and the Middle East. Toronto: Science for Peace / Samuel Stevens, 1992; 83–94 [an address delivered at the Centre for Peace Studies at McMaster University, June 1989].

*Awad, Mubarak E. (Founder & Director, Nonviolence International). "Non–Violent Resistance: A Strategy for the Occupied Territories." Journal of Palestine Studies, 13 #52 (Summer 1984) 22–36. Repr. in D.H. Albert, ed., Nonviolent Struggle in the Middle East. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1985; 23–37. Arabic trans., al-La‘Unf fi l-Ard al-Muhtallah. East Jerusalem: Palestinian Center for the Study of Nonviolence, 1986.

Barton, Greg. "Indonesia’s Nurcholish Madjid and Abdurrahman Wahid as Intellectual ‘Ulama’. The Meeting of Islamic Traditionalism and Modernism in Neo-Modernist Thought." Studia Islamika (Indonesian Journal for Islamic Studies), 4/1 (1997) 29–81.

Barton, Greg, & Greg Fealy, eds. Nahdlatul Ulama, Traditional Islam and Modernity in Indonesia. Monash Asia Institute: Clayton, 1996.

Bennett, Brad. "Arab Muslim Cases of Nonviolent Struggle." in Ralph E. Crow, et. al., eds., Arab Nonviolent Political Struggle in the Middle East; 41–57 [with a basic bibliography].

Birai, Umar M. "Islamic Tajdid and the Political Process in Nigeria." in M.E. Marty & R.S. Appleby, eds., Fundamentalisms and the State, University of Chicago Press, 1993; 184–203.

Bonine, Michael E., ed. Population, Poverty and Politics in Middle East Cities. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1997.

Brenner, Louis, ed. Muslim Identity and Social Change in Sub–Saharan Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994.

*Brown, Nathan J. The Rule of Law in the Arab World: Courts in Egypt and the Gulf. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997.

Burgat, François & William Dowell. The Islamic Movement in North Africa. 2nd ed., Austin, TX: Center for Middle Eastern Studies, University of Texas at Austin, 1997 [updated translation of Burgat’s L’Islamisme au Maghreb, Paris: Karthala, 1988].

Carapico, Sheila. Civil Society in Yemen: the Political Economy of Activism in Modern Arabia. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998 [shows how Yemen is seeking to develop the political, economic and social structures of the modern democratic state].

*Dajani, Souad R. [Su‘ad al-Dajani]. Eyes Without Country: Searching for a Palestinian Strategy of Liberation. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1994; (esp. p.95–158, on nonviolent civilian resistance).

al-Dajani, Su ‘ad. "al-Muqawamat al-Madaniyyah fi l-Daffat al-Gharbiyyah [Civilian Resistance in the West Bank]." in Sa‘d al-Din Ibrahim, ed., al-Muqawamat al-Madaniyyah fi l-Nidal al-Siyasi (Amman, 1988) 83–109.

Dodd, Peter. "Family Honor and the Forces of Change in Arab Society." International Journal of Middle East Studies, 4 (1973) 40–53 [on male dominance and female honor].

Entelis, John P., ed. Islam, Democracy, and the State in North Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1997.

Galtung, Johan. Nonviolence and Israel / Palestine. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Institute for Peace, 1989 [both a review of nonviolent principles & case studies, and an assessment of whether Palestinian nonviolence is a realistic option; chaps. 1 & 4 were originally delivered at the conference on Nonviolent Political Struggle, Arab Thought Forum, Amman, November 15–18, 1986].

*Galtung, Johan. "The Middle East and the Theory of Conflict." Essays in Peace Research, vol. V. Copenhagen: Ejlers, 1980; chapter 3, 77–116; also in Journal of Palestine Studies, 2 #1 (1972) 34–63; + Arabic trans. in al-Siyasat al-Duwaliyyah, 30 (1972) 32–67.

Gladney, Dru. Muslim Chinese: Ethnic Nationalism in the People’s Republic. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1991 [see p.612–663 on the rising tide of ethnic nationalism and strengthened sense of Islamic identity among Chinese Muslims].

Grant, Philip. "Nonviolent Political Struggle in the Occupied Territories." in R. Crow, et al., eds., Arab Nonviolent Political Struggle in the Middle East (Boulder & London, 1990) 59–74.

Haddad, Yvonne Y., ed. The Muslims of America. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 1993.

*Hamdi, Mohamed El-Hashmi. The Politicisation of Islam: A Case Study of Tunisia. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1998 [an inside perspective of the Islamic Tendency Movement by a disillusioned Islamist and progressive critic].

Harney, Desmond. The Priest and the King: An Eyewitness Account of the Iranian Revolution. London & New York: British Academic Press, 1998 [a day-to-day account by a senior British diplomat].

Hofmann, Murad. "Muslims as Co-Citizens in the West—Rights, Duties, Limits and Prospects." The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 14 #4 (Winter 1997) 87–95.

Hopkins, Nicholas S. & Saad Eddin Ibrahim. Arab Society – Contemporary Views: Class, Gender, Power, and Development. New York: Columbia University Press, 1998.

Hunter, F. Robert. The Palestinian Uprising: A War by Other Means. London & New York: I.B. Tauris, 1991 [good chronology & analysis].

Ibrahim, Saad Eddin. Egypt, Islam and Democracy. Cairo: American University in Cairo Press, 1996.

Irani, George E. "Reconciliation and Peace: Rituals for the Middle East." Middle East Insight, 13 #5 (September-October 1998) 24–26.

Irani, George Emile, ed. Reconciliation Processes and the Displaced Communities in Post-War Lebanon. Beirut: Lebanese American University, 1997 [bi-lingual text, Arabic & English; proceedings of a workshop in Byblos on March 1–2, 1996].

‘Irani, George Emile, & Lauri King-‘Irani, eds. al-I‘tiraf bi-l-Akhar, al-Ghufran wa l-Musalahah: Durus min Lubnan [Recognizing the Other, Forgiveness and Reconciliation: Studies from Lebanon]. Beirut: al-Jami‘at al-Lubnaniyyat al-Amirkiyyah / Lebanese American University, 1996 [seventeen Lebanese academics & community leaders offer views on post-war conciliation among differing religious communities; English translation forthcoming].

Jabbour, Elias J. SULHA: Palestinian Traditional Peacemaking Process. New York: House of Hope Publications, 1996.

Kalimat Sawa’: al-Imam Musa al-Sadr wa l-Hiwar /Common Terms: Imam Musa al-Sadr and Dialogue. Proceedings of the Conference on Christian–Muslim Interrelations held at the Beirut Commodore Hotel, Nov. 13–14, 1996. Beirut: Markaz al-Imam al-Sadr li-l-Abhath wa l-Dirasat, 1997 [Lebanese and Syrian Christian, Muslim, and Druze religious & community leaders discuss inter-faith understanding; hosted by the Imam Musa al-Sadr Center for Research and Study].

Kane, Ousmane (‘Uthman Kan). "Muslim Missionaries and African States." in S.H. Rudolph and J. Piscatori, eds., Transnational Religion and Fading States. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997; 47–62 [focuses on the Niassène Tijaniyya order of West Africa, its extension in N. America, and its role as networks of global civil society].

Kennedy, R. Scott. "The Druze of the Golan: A Case of Nonviolent Resistance." Journal of Palestine Studies, 13 #50 (Winter 1984) 48–64. Repr. in D.H. Albert, ed., Nonviolent Struggle in the Middle East. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers, 1985; 5–21.

Kepel. Gilles. Muslim Extremism in Egypt: The Prophet and Pharaoh, trans. Jon Rothschild. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993 [update of the 1984 ed.; the best survey and analysis of contemporary religious movements in Egypt].

Khan, Maulana Wahiduddin. Indian Muslims: the Need for a Positive Outlook. New Delhi: al-Risala Books, 1994.

Khosrokhavar, Farhad. L’Islamisme et la mort: la martyre révolutionnaire en Iran. Paris: Harmattan, 1995 [meaningful study of the ideology of martyrdom in the Islamic Republic of Iran].

Kiri?çi, Kemal & Gareth M. Winrow. The Kurdish Question in Turkey: An Example of a Trans-State Ethnic Conflict. London: Frank Cass, 1997.

Kumar, Krishna & I. Rosenthal. "Scientific Cooperation and Peace Building: A Case Study of USAID’s Middle East Regional Cooperation Program." in After the War is Over What Comes Next? Promoting Democracy, Human Rights, and Reintegration in Post-conflict Societies [USAID Conference, October 30–31, 1997]. Washington, D.C.: United States Agency for International Development, Center for Development Information and Evaluation, 1997.

Lateef, Nelda. Women of Lebanon: Interviews with Champions for Peace. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., 1997 [interviews with forty-two Lebanese women from various sectors of society, demonstrating resilience and efforts at peace building in society after the civil war].

Lawyers Committee for Human Rights. Beset by Contradictions: Islamization, Legal Reform and Human Rights in the Sudan. July, 1996.

Lewis, Philip. Islamic Britain: Religion, Politics and Identity among British Muslims. London: I.B. Tauris, 1994.

Lin, Phylis Lan, ed. Islam in America: Images and Challenges. Bloomington, IN: University of Indianapolis Press, 1998.

Mardin, ?erif. "The Nakshibendi Order of Turkey." in M.E. Marty & R.S. Appleby, eds., Fundamentalisms and the State (University of Chicago Press 1993) 204–232.

McCarthy, Justin. Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821–1922. Princeton, NJ: The Darwin Press, 1995 [documents sustained Christian prejudice and brutality toward Muslims of the late Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, southern Russia, and modern Turkey].

McChesney, Robert D. Central Asia: Foundations of Change. Princeton, NJ: The Darwin Press, 1996 [an informed analysis of the region stressing long range patterns, institutions, and social realities, and giving attention to religious, economic, and political aspects].

Mehdi, Syed Sikander (International Relations, University of Karachi). "Rediscovering the Culture of Peace in South Asia." in Hendrick Bullens & Seiitsu Tachibana, eds., Restructuring Security Concepts, Postures, and Industrial Base. Mosbach, Germany: AFES–PRESS Publishers, 1997.

Mehdi, Syed Sikander. "Pakistan: Nonviolence in a Violent Society." & "A University of Peace and Nonviolence for South Asia." — papers presented at 16th General Conference of the International Peace Research Association, Brisbane, Australia, 1996.

Messaoudi, Khalida. Unbowed: An Algerian Woman Confronts Islamic Fundamentalism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1998 [interviews with Elisabeth Schemla].

Nabuwwah, Khadr A., ed. Ta’rikh Harakat al-La‘Unf fi Lubnan [History of the Movement for Nonviolence in Lebanon]. Beirut: al-Manshurat al-Adabiyyah, 1983; 89p. [reprints documents from 1967–1977 of the Movement for Nonviolence, founded by a group of Christian and Muslim Lebanese in reaction to Arab–Israeli conflict and internal Lebanese violence; includes the movement’s Charter; all nine issues of the monthly magazine al-La‘Unf [Nonviolence, Feb. 1967– April 68] with contributions by the likes of the Druze chief Kamal Junbulat, Antiochian Orthodox Bishop George Khodr, the poet Adonis, & reactions to Martin Luther King’s murder; a list of the movement’s Bulletins (—1977), and newspaper articles].

an-Na‘im, Abdullahi A. "Religious Freedom in Egypt: Under the Shadow of the Islamic Dhimma System." in Leonard Swidler, ed., Religious Liberty and Human Rights in Nations and Religions. Philadelphia: Ecumenical Press, 1986; 43–59.

el-Naiem [al-Na‘im], Abdullahi. "A Modern Approach to Human Rights in Islam: Foundations and Implications for Africa." in Claude Welch Jr. & Ronald Meltzer, eds., Human Rights and Development in Africa. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1984; 75–89.

Nielsen, Jorgen. "Citizens or Aliens?" Muslim Politics Report [New York, NY] #15 (1997) [treats the current status of Muslim presence in Western Europe].

*Nielsen, Jorgen. Muslims in Western Europe. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991.

The Open Society, The Forced Migration Projects. Coping with Conflict: a Guide to the Work of Local NGOs in the North Caucasus. New York, NY: The Open Society, 1998 [useful overview of current conditions and prospects in Chechnya, Ingushetia, and Dagestan].

Ozdalga, Elisabeth. The Veiling Issue, Official Secularism and Popular Islam in Modern Turkey. Surrey, UK: Curzon Press, 1998 [published for the Nordic Institute of Asian Studies].

Palestine Center for the Study of Nonviolence. "Nonviolence and the Palestinian Resistance to Israeli Occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip." East Jerusalem: mimeograph, 1989 ?

Piscatori, James. "Islamic Values and National Interest: the Foreign Policy of Saudi Arabia." in A. Dawisha, ed., Islam in Foreign Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983; 33–53.

Ramadan, Abdel Azim. "Fundamentalist Influence in Egypt: The Strategies of the Muslim Brotherhood and the Takfir Groups." in M.E. Marty & R.S. Appleby, eds., Fundamentalisms and the State. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993; 152–183.

Ramage, Douglas E. Politics in Indonesia: Democracy, Islam and the Ideology of Tolerance. London & New York: Routledge, 1995.

Roy, Olivier. Afghanistan: From Holy War to Civil War. Princeton, NJ: Darwin Press, 1995 [an assessment of the Afghan mujahidin movement in the context of Islamism, and the return to ethnic and tribal divisions in traditional Afghan society].

Salla, Michael E. "Kosovo and Nonviolent Conflict Resolution." Social Alternatives, vol. 16 #2 (April 1997) [special issue ed. by M. True & R. Summy, on ‘Nonviolent Campaigns: A decade of Peaceful Struggles Around the World’].

Salla, Michael E. "The Nonviolent Struggle Continues: An Analysis of Recent Political Events in the Former Yugoslav Autonomous Province of Kosovo." International Journal of Nonviolence, I (Sept. 1993) 79–89.

Salla, Michael E. Islamic Radicalism: Muslim Nations and the West. Nedlands (Western Australia): The Indian Ocean Centre for Peace Studies, The University of Western Australia, 1993 [reviews Islamic resurgence in Jordan and Uzbekistan].

Satha-Anand, Chaiwat. Islam and Violence: A Case Study of Violent Events in the Four Southern Provinces of Thailand 1976–1981. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida, 1987.

Shahin, Emad Eldin. Political Ascent: Contemporary Islamic Movements in North Africa. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997 [reviews writings of Islamic thinkers from the Maghrib on role of Islam & state, democracy, and nonviolent change].

Sharp, Gene. "The Intifadah and Nonviolent Struggle." Journal of Palestine Studies, 21 #73 (1989) 3–13.

Sharp, Gene. "Nonviolent Struggle." Journal of Palestine Studies, 17 #1 (1987) 37–55 [interview by Dr. Afif Safieh].

Sick, Gary & Lawrence Potter. The Persian Gulf at the Mellennium: Essays in Politics, Economy, Security, and Religion. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1997.

Smerling, Thomas R. "Imkaniyyat Harakat La‘unfiyyah fi l-Daffat al-Gharbiyyah wa Ghazzah [Prospects for a Nonviolent Movement in the West Bank and Gaza]." in Sa‘d al-Din Ibrahim, ed., al-Muqawamat al-Madaniyyah fi l-Nidal al-Siyasi, 110–134.

Sonn, Tamara, ed. Islam and the Question of Minorities. Atlanta, GA: Scholars Press, 1996 [complex issues facing the one-quarter Muslims worldwide living in pluralist non-Muslim majority states, as well as intra–Islamic pluralism; includes studies on South Africa, Germany, France, & Kurds in Turkey].

Starrett, Gregory. Putting Islam to Work: Education, Politics, and Religious Transformation in Egypt. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998.

*Sullivan, Denis J. Private Voluntary Organizations in Egypt: Islamic Development, Private Initiative, and State Control. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 1994 [important for appreciating the non-state roles of Islamist movements].

Triaud, Jean-Louis. "L’Islam en Afrique Noire, entre violence et non-violence." in Alternatives Non Violentes #83, Violence et Non-Violence en Islam (1992) 53–56.

Vogele. William B. "Learning and Nonviolent Struggle in the Intifadah." Peace & Change, 17 #3 (1992) 312–40.

Volkan, Vamik, & Norman Itzkowitz. Turks & Greeks: Neighbours in Conflict. Cambridgeshire, UK: Eothen Press, 1994; 2nd printing 1996.

*Volkan, Vamik. Cyprus—War and Adaptation: A Psychoanalytical History of Two Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Charlottesville, VA: University Press of Virginia, 1979 [uses insights of psycho-politics to explain inter-group animosity of inter-ethnic conflict between Greek and Turk].

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4. Abdul Ghaffar Khan [or Badshah Khan, 1890–1988]

*Bondurant, Joan V. "Satyagraha in an Islamic Setting." in Conquest of Violence: The Gandhian Philosophy of Conflict. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1958; 2nd ed. 1988; see esp. p.221–270.

Easwaran, Eknath. A Man to Match his Mountains: Badshah Khan, Nonviolent Soldier of Islam. Petaluma, CA: Nilgiri Press, 1984; repr. 1996 [available from Fellowship of Reconciliation, POBox 271, Nyack, New York 10960–0271]. Arabic translation by Ibrahim Wadi‘ Ata, Rajul, wa La Kulla l-Rijal: Badshah Khan, Jundi al-La‘Unf fi l-Islam. East Jerusalem: al-Markaz al-Filastini li-Dirasat al-La‘Unf [Palestinian Center for the Study of Nonviolence], 1987.

*Johansen, Robert C. "Radical Islam and Nonviolence: A case study of religious empowerment and constraint among Pashtuns." Journal of Peace Research, 34 #1 (1997) 53–71 [fine bibliography].

Khan, Khan Abdul Ghaffar. My Life and Struggle: Autobiography of Badshah Khan as Narrated to K.B. Narang. Trans. Helen H. Borman. Delhi: Hindu Pocket Books, 1969 [his memoirs dictated after release from Pakistani prison; mostly on his independence activities against the British].

Korejo, Muhammad Souleh. Frontier Gandhi. Karachi, etc.: Oxford University Press, 1990.

*Tendulkar, D.G. Abdul Ghaffar Khan: Faith is a Battle. New Delhi: Gandhi Peace Foundation, 1967 [most detailed, masses of documentation, essential for appreciating Khan’s career, philosophy, and his role in the Indian independence struggle].

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5. Islam and Politics

*Abu-Rabi‘, Ibrahim M. Intellectual Origins of Islamic Resurgence in the Modern Arab World. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1996.

Ahmad, Imad-ad-Dean & Ahmed Yousef, eds. Islam and the West: A Dialog. Springfield, VA: United Association for Studies and Research & The American Muslim Foundation, 1998; series Islamic Roundtables #1.

Ahmad, Rif‘at Sayyid. Tanzimat al-Ghadab al-Islami [Organizations of Islamic Anger]. Cairo: 1989.

Appleby, R. Scott, ed. Spokesmen for the Despised: Fundamentalist Leaders of the Middle East. Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1997 [interviews with contemporary Islamist leaders].

*Beinin, Joel & Joe Stork, eds. Political Islam—Essays from Middle East Report. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1997 [printed in cooperation with MERIP].

Brynen, Rex, & Baghat Korany & Paul Noble, eds. Political Liberalization and Democratization in the Arab World, vol. I: Theoretical Perspectives. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1995 [see esp. the sections on political culture and political economy: contributions by Salwa Ismail, "Democracy in Contemporary Arab Intellectual Discourse;" by Gudrun Kramer, "Islam and Pluralism;" & Mervat E. Hatem on state-led reform and women’s political participation, "Political Liberalization, Gender, and the State"]. vol. II: Experiences. Boulder: 1998 [examines prospects and process of political reform in ten Arab countries].

Burgat, François. The Islamic Movement in North Africa. Austin, TX: University of Texas Press, 1997.

Butterworth, Charles. "The Intersection of Islamic Resurgence and Democracy." in Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad & Ahmed Yousef, eds., Islam and the West: A Dialog (Springfield, VA: 1998) 95–114.

Cantori, Louis J. "Civil Society, Liberalism and the Corporatist Alternative in the Middle East." Middle East Studies Association Bulletin, 31 #1 (July 1997) 34–41 [critique of current Occidental theoretical assumptions, suggests that liberal pluralist paradigms of civil society, democracy, and globalization are not congruent with the reality of centralized power in the Middle East].

*Eickelman, Dale F. "Trans–State Islam and Security." in S.H. Rudolph & J. Piscatori, eds., Transnational Religion & Fading States. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997; 27–46.

*Eickelman, D. F. & James Piscatori. Muslim Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press, 1996 [an excellent overview].

*Esposito, John L., ed. Political Islam: Revolution, Radicalism, or Reform? Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 1997 [emphasis is on the diversity of Islamist phenomena, impact of globalization, and transnational influences; see esp. contributions by Lisa Anderson distinguishing violence from ideology, "Fulfilling Prophecies: Illegal Opposition and Islamic Radicalism;" by R.W. Baker on moderate Islamists in Egypt, "Invidious Comparisons: Realism, Postmodern Globalism, and Centrist Islamic Movements in Egypt;" & by J. Voll on the international relations of political Islam, "Relations Among Islamist Groups"].

*Esposito, John L. The Islamic Threat: Myth or Reality? 2nd ed., New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Esposito, John L. Political Islam: The Challenge of Change. Springfield, VA: United Association for Studies and Research, 1995.

Etienne, Bruno. L’islamisme radical. Paris: Hachette, 1987 [Le Livre de Poche, no. 4103].

Fuller, Graham E. Islamic Fundamentalism in the Northern Tier Countries: An Integrative View. Santa Monica: Rand, 1991 [stresses the diversity and specificity of the Islamist movements].

Heiberg, Marianne, ed. Subduing Sovereignty: Sovereignty and the Right to Intervene. London: Pinter Publishers (distributed in US by St. Martin’s Press), 1994 [results of a workshop convened by the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs in 1992, dedicated to the memory of the late foreign minister Johan Jorgen Holst, architect of the Oslo Accord; covers the ethics and legitimacy of intervention, and the possibilities for building new communities transcending state boundaries; very relevant for peace building].

Hibbard, Scott & David Little. Islamic Activism and U.S. Foreign Policy, foreward by William B. Quandt. Herndon, VA: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1997 [examines Iran, Algeria, Jordan, Pakistan, and Indonesia, from perspective of U.S. interests].

Imam, Ayesha M. "The Muslim Religious Right ("Fundamentalists") and Sexuality." Women Living Under Muslim Laws: Dossier 17. (June, 1997) 31–61.

Islam and Politics. Special issue of Third World Quarterly, 10 #2 (April 1988) [still relevant].

Jaber, Hala. Hezbollah: Born with a Vengance. New York, NY: Columbia University Press, 1997.

*Kuran, Timur. "The Economic Impact of Islamic Fundamentalism." in M.E. Marty & R.S. Appleby, eds., Fundamentalisms and the State, University of Chicago Press, 1993; 302–341.

Madelung, Wilferd. The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997 [major re-evaluation of sources and fresh reconstruction of the historical events, provides insights into the genesis of state power and the ideology of authority under the first five Caliphs].

*Malley, Robert. The Call from Algeria: Third Worldism, Revolution, and the Return to Islam. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996 [traces the complex political, social, & economic transformations underway in Algeria and the Middle East; focuses on the disengagement of corporatist state ideology and its replacement by Islamism].

Marty, Martin E. & R. Scott Appleby, eds. Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993; vol. 3 of ‘The Fundamentalism Project’.

Mayer, Ann E. "The Fundamentalist Impact on Law, Politics, and Constitutions in Iran, Pakistan, and the Sudan." in M.E. Marty & R.S. Appleby, eds., Fundamentalisms and the State, University of Chicago Press, 1993; 110–151.

Moussalli, Ahmad. Historical Dictionary of Islamic Fundamentalist Movements in the Arab World, Iran and Turkey. forthcoming.

Moussalli, Ahmad. "Modern Islamic Fundamentalist Discourses on Civil Society, Pluralism, and Democracy." in A.R. Norton, ed., Civil Society in the Middle East. Leiden, New York & Koln: E.J. Brill, I 1995 & II 1996; in vol. I 100f.

*al-Mutlaq, Hanah (Saudi Arabian psychiatrist). "Aspects of Non–Spiritual Rewards of Islamic Fundamentalism." Mind & Human Interaction, 7 #2 (May 1996) 91–96 [journal of the Center for the Study of Mind and Human Interaction, University of Virginia School of Medicine; points to repressed sexuality as one motive of Islamist intolerance].

Noor, Farish A. Terrorising the Truth: The Shaping of Contemporary Images of Islam and Muslims in Media, Politics and Culture. Kuala Lumpur: The International Movement for a Just World, 1998 [a report on the workshop organised by Just World Trust, Oct. 7–9, 1995].

O’Ballance, Edgar. Islamic Fundamentalist Terrorism, 1979–1995. New York, NY: New York University Press, 1997 [somewhat sensationalist & alarmist, useful as a chronology].

*Pelletiere, Stephen C. "A Theory of Fundamentalism: An Inquiry into the Origin and Development of the Movement." Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute, 1995 [cogent overview of Islamist phenomena by a U.S. intelligence analyst]; summarized as "Origins of Political Islamic Movements: A Western Perspective," in Imad-ad-Dean Ahmad & Ahmed Yousef, eds, Islam and the West (Springfield, VA: 1998) 67–94.

al-Qaradawi, Yusuf [prominent Egyptian thinker of the Muslim Brethren]. Islamic Awakening between Rejection and Extremism. Herndon, VA: International Institute of Islamic Thought, 1981.

Roy, Olivier. L’echec de l’Islam politique. Paris: Éditions du Seuil, 1992 [see esp. p.118–166 on the emergence of the "micro–intellectuals" or new ‘ulama’ as self-trained charismatic individuals].

al-Sayyid, Ridwan. Siyasiyyat al-Islam al-Mu‘asir: Muraja‘at wa Mutabi‘at [Political Aspects of Contemporary Islam]. Beirut: Dar al-Kitab al-‘Arabi, 1418 / 1997.

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6. Nonviolence: Theory & Practice

Ackerman, Peter & Christopher Kruegler. Strategic Nonviolent Conflict: The Dynamics of People Power in the Twentieth Century. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1994.

Avruch, Kevin. Culture and Conflict Resolution. Herndon, VA: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1998 [advocates importance of a coherent concept of culture for conflict resolution].

*Boubault, Guy; Christian Brunier, Jean-Marie Muller, & Vincent Roussel. Ghandi, Sani‘ al-La‘Unf [Gandhi – artisan de la non-violence], trans. Antoine Abu Zayd. al-Jumayzah (Beirut): Markaz al-La‘Unf wa Huquq al-Insan (Jam‘iyyat al-‘Amal al-Ijtima‘i al-Thaqafi), 1st ed. 1996 [128 pp.; essays by various authors, trans. & published with subvention from Diakonia (Sweden); original French edition by Non-violence Actualité (Montargis: 1991)]. See Center for Nonviolence & Human Rights / Markaz al-La‘Unf wa Huquq al-Insan, Beirut, ( (961–01–) 585403.

*Curle, Adam. "Istikhdam al-La‘Unf didd al-Zulm wa l-‘Udwan [Employing Nonviolence against Repression and Aggression]." in Sa‘d al-Din Ibrahim, ed., al-Muqawamat al-Madaniyyah fi l-Nidal al-Siyasi, 26–37.

Dalton, Dennis. Mahatma Gandhi: Nonviolent Power in Action. New York: Columbia University Press, 1993.

Friesen, Duane K. "Religion and Nonviolent Action." In R.S. Powers & W.B. Vogele, eds., Protest, Power, and Change, 425–430.

Galtung, Johan. "On the Meaning of Nonviolence." in Peace, War and Defence, Essays in Peace Research, v. II. Copenhagen: Christian Ejlers, 1976; 341–377.

Gandhi, Mohandas K. Nonviolence in Peace and War. Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House, 1978.

Gandhi, Mohandas K. All Men are Brothers: Autobiographical Reflections, compiled by Krishna Kripalani. New York: Continuum, 1980. French trans. Tous les hommes sont freres. Paris: Ed. Gallimard, 1993. Arabic trans. by Antoine Abu Zayd: Kullu l-Bashar Ikhwah. Beirut: Center for Nonviolence & Human Rights, forthcoming.

Gandhi, Mohandas K. An Autobiography or the Story of My Experiments with Truth. Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1948. Arabic trans. by Munir al-Ba‘alabakki: Qissat Tajaribi ma‘a l-Haqiqah. Beirut: Dar al-‘Ilm li-l–Malayin, 1958; 6th pr. 1981.

*Gregg, Richard B. The Power of Nonviolence. Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1935. 2nd revised ed., New York: Schocken, 1966 [a classic study].

Junbulat, Kamal. "Ba‘da asalib al-nidal al-silmi li-l-mahatma Ghandi [Some Methods of ‘Peaceful Struggle’ of Mahatma Gandhi]." in Khadr A. Nabuwwah, ed., Ta’rikh Harakat al-La‘Unf fi Lubnan (Beirut: 1983) 59–61 [first published in the Beirut monthly al-La‘Unf #8, Jan. 1968].

Lederach, John Paul. Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. Herndon, VA: United States Institute of Peace Press, 1997.

Muller, Jean-Marie. Ma‘na al-La‘Unf [= Le principe de non-violence, Parcours philosophique; French ed. Desclee de Brouwer]. Arabic trans. by Markaz al-La‘Unf wa Huquq al-Insan, Beirut: 1995.

Powers, Roger S. & William B. Vogele, eds. Protest, Power, and Change: An Encyclopedia of Nonviolent Action. Hamden, CT: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1997 [comprehensive Western resource guide for concepts and people].

Program on Nonviolent Sanctions and Cultural Survival. Transforming Struggle: Strategy and the Global Experience of Nonviolent Direct Action. Cambridge, MA: Program on Nonviolent Sanctions and Cultural Survival, Harvard University, 1992.

Salibi, Walid. As’ilah wa Ajwibah Hawla l-Nahj al-La‘Unfi fi l-Taghyir al-Ijtima‘i [Questions and Answers Concerning the Nonviolent Method of Social Change]. Beirut: Center for Nonviolence & Human Rights, forthcoming.

Sharp, Gene, & Brad Bennett. Nonviolent Action, A Research Guide. New York & London: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1997 [a comprehensive annotated bibliography, includes topics relating to Islam].

Sharp, Gene (President, Albert Einstein Institution). "Nonviolent Struggle Today." in Graeme MacQueen, ed., Unarmed Forces: Nonviolent Action in Central America and the Middle East. Toronto: Science for Peace / Samuel Stevens, 1992; 1–19.

*Sharp, Gene. "The Role of Power in Nonviolent Political Struggle." In R. Crow, et al., eds., Arab Nonviolent Political Struggle in the Middle East, 91–106; Arabic text "Dawr al-Quwwah fi l-Kifah al-La‘Anif," in Sa‘d al-Din Ibrahim, ed., al-Muqawamat al-Madaniyyah fi l-Nidal al-Siyasi, 9–25.

Sharp, Gene. Nonviolent Struggle: an efficient technique of political action. East Jerusalem: Palestinian Center for the Study of Nonviolence, n.d. [interview with Sharp, originally published in the Palestinian newspaper al-Fajr, May 2, 1986].

*Sharp, Gene. Gandhi as a Political Strategist, with essays on Ethics and Politics; introduction by Coretta Scott King. Boston, MA: Porter Sargent Publishers, 1979 [pieces published from 1959–1970].

*Sharp, Gene. The Politics of Nonviolent Action. 3 vols., Boston: Porter Sargent, 1973.

See abbreviated Arabic trans. under supervision of Mubarak ‘Awad, entitled al-Muqawamat al–La‘Unfiyyah. al-Quds (East Jerusalem): Palestinian Center for the Study of Nonviolence, 1986. Fresh Arabic trans. by Walid Salibi, Siyasat al-‘Amal al-La‘Unfi. Beirut: Markaz al-La‘Unf wa Huquq al-Insan, forthcoming.

Shridharani, Krishnalal. War Without Violence. Bombay: Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1962 [repr. of author’s original work of 1939 (London & New York); describes and analyzes Gandhi’s Satyagraha].

Vaillant, François. La non–violence. Essai de morale fondamentale. Paris: Cerf, 1990.

*Wink, Walter. Engaging the Powers: Discernment and Resistance in a World of Domination. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 1992 [offers a profound scriptural basis for Christian nonviolence]. See Wink’s recent summation of his works in The Powers That Be (New York: Doubleday, 1998), & When the Powers Fall (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1998).
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7. Periodicals

As–Salamu ‘Alaykum. Published by Muslim Peace Fellowship / Ansar as-Salam

(afilliated with Fellowship of Reconciliation, Nyack, NY). Editor: Rabia T. Harris (—vol 3, 1418 / 1998); articles by K. Kishtainy, F. Esack, Eqbal Ahmad, Giasuddin Ahmad. F.O.R., Box 271, 521 N. Broadway, Nyack, New York 10960. ( 914–358-4601. Fax 914–358-4924. :

Civil Society. Publication of The Ibn Khaldoun Center for Development Studies, Director, Saad Eddin Ibrahim (—vol 7, 1998); 17, Street 12, Mokattam, POBox 13, Cairo, Egypt. ( 202–5061617. Fax 202–5061030. :

The Diplomat. An English–Arabic Forum for the Dialogue of Cultures and Civilizations. Published by Dar al-Mustakillah, London, UK; Editor– Dr. Mohamed Elhachmi Elhamdi [al-Hashimi al-Hamidi] (—vol. 3. 1418 / 1998). ( (181–)903-7899. Fax (181–)795-1493. :

Gandhi Marg. Journal of the Gandhi Peace Foundation, 221–223 Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Marg, New Delhi 110 002, INDIA. ( (91–11–)323-7491. Fax –724-9058 [occasional articles on aspects of Islam].

Inter-Faith Quarterly [in English], and Al-Nashra [in Arabic]. Published by the Royal Institute for Inter-Faith Studies, PO Box 830562, Amman 11183, Jordan. ( (962–6) 618051, Fax —618053, : [both feature articles on Islam & Muslim–Christian relations].

International Journal of Nonviolence. Published by Nonviolence International, Washington D.C.

International Journal of Peace Studies. Published twice yearly by Formosa College, on behalf of the Global Political Economy Study Commission of the IPRA. [Professor Cheng-Feng Shih, POBox 26-447, Taipei 106, Taiwan. Fax 886–2–707-7965].

International Peace Research Association Newsletter, ed. Mahendra Kumar. Published by the International Peace Research Association (IPRA) [President: Professor Kevin P. Clements, Director, Institute for Conflict Analysis & Resolution, George Mason University, Fairfax, Virginia 22030-4444. ( 703–993-1300. Fax 703–993-1302] and by The Gandhi Peace Foundation.

Islam 21 . Published by the The International Forum for Islamic Dialogue / al-Minbar al-Duwali li-l-Hiwar al-Islami. Director: Laith Kubba; Premier House, 313 Kilburn Lane, Westminster, London W9 3EG. ( /Fax 44–181–9642944. : [provocative, intelligent, significant.]

Islamic Horizons . Published bi-monthly by The Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), POBox 38, Plainfield, Indiana 46168. ( 317–839-8147. Fax –839-1840. :

Non–violence Actualité (mensuel pour la résolution non-violente des conflits). Edited by Vincent Roussel. Monthly analyses of violent conflicts worldwide, and of positive peaceful methods for resolving them; frequent attention to Islamic affairs or regions. order: BP 241, 45202 Montargis, France. ( 02–38936722. Fax 02–38937472.

Peace and Conflict: Journal of Peace Psychology. Published by the Division of Peace Psychology of the American Psychological Association (APA) [Division of Peace Psychology, 2607 Connecticut Ave. NW, Washington DC 20008].

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8. Media & Electronic
Arab Women Speak Out—Profiles of Self-Empowerment. VHS, 10 documentary video profiles (Egypt, Lebanon, Palestine, Tunisia, Yemen), Johns Hopkins University Center for Communication Programs, & the Center of Arab Women for Training and Research in Tunisia, 1998. JHU/CCP, School of Hygiene and Public Health, 111 Market Place – Suite 310, Baltimore, MD 21202-4012 ( 410–659-6300, Fax 410–659-6266. or CAWTAR, 44 Rue de Pologne – 1005 El Omrane, Tunis ( (216-1) 571-945 & —571-867, Fax (216-1) 574-627. A documentary, training, and advocacy project promoting women’s empowerment and active participation in social development.

Five Pillars of Islam. VHS, 5 parts, 1991—1994. Dir: Farouk Ubaysi; Prod: Nazir Khaja & Bashir Matin; for The Islamic Information Service. 1) The Shahada: Declaration of Faith, 2) Salat: How to Perform Prayer, 3) Zakat: Community Tax, 4) Fasting During Ramadan, 5) Hajj: The Fifth Pillar of Islam. Narrated by an American Muslim convert, Dr. Nasiha Al-Sakina, interviewing various guests (Hassan Hathout, Muzammil Saddiqui, Misbeh Dor) and giving a blend of history, Qur’anic recitation, current practice and belief. The Islamic Information Service, PO Box 6220, Altadena, CA 91003-6220. ( 800–531-4447, Fax 818–791-9824.

The Hajj: One American’s Pilgrimage to Mecca. VHS 22 min., MP 7267. Michael Wolfe, an American convert, documents his trip for ABC News Nightline. MPI Home Video, 16101 S. 108th Ave., Orland Park, IL 60467. ( 800–777-2223.

*Islam: A Pictorial Essay in Four Parts. By Gray H. Gouverneur, VHS, 90 min., ISBN 0946621004 – The Islamic Texts Society, 1986. Exceptional quality & craft; highly accurate with visually appealing slide illustrations. 1) The Doctrine, 2) The History and Culture, 3) Life of the Prophet and the Faith, 4) The Arts and the Sciences. Order from: FONS VITAE, Louisville KY, ( /Fax 502–897-3641.

Islam, with Bill Moyers & Huston Smith (56 mins.); and The Islamic Mind: Seyyid Hossein Nasr, with Bill Moyers & Professor Nasr (30 mins.); VHS. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences.

*Islamic Conversations. VHS. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities and Sciences, 1994. A six–part three hour series featuring a number of Islamic thinkers and themes; 1) Islam and Pluralism [with Anwar Ibrahim], 2) Islam and Christianity, 3) Islam and War [with Sayyid Husayn FadlAllah], 4) The Islamic State [with Hasan Turabi], 5) Authority and Change [with Shaykh Sayyid Tantawi], 6) Women & Islam. Order from Films for the Humanities & Sciences, POBox 2053, Princeton, NJ 08543-2053. ( 800–257-5126. Fax 609–275-3767. :

*Living Islam. VHS. A six video BBC presentation by anthropologist Akbar Ahmed, on what it means to be a Muslim in today’s world (excellent for classroom use). 1) Foundations of Islam,

2) Challenges of the Past, 3) Muslims in Minority, 4) The Muslim Family, 5) Islam and Modernity,

and 6) The Last Crusade. Order from Islam Publications International, POBox 247, Dept. mea 2, Teanaeck, NJ 07666. ( 800–568-9814. Fax 800–466-8111. :

The Story of Islam. VHS 120 min., MP 6024. A PSA production surveying the culture, philosophy, and way of life of Islam. MPI Home Video, ( 800–777-2223.

Tolerance—Dedicated to Mawlana Jalal al-Din Rumi. VHS. [Turkey] 1995, 32 min. Directed & Produced by Fehme Gerceker & Azuiz Akyavas under UNESCO patronage. Courtesy of Landmark Media, Inc., 3450 Slace Run Drive, Falls Church, VA 22042. ( 800–342-2030. Fax 703–536-9540.

*The World of Islam. VHS. Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities, 1988. An intelligent six–part three hour survey of the Islamic world and civilization: 1) The Five Pillars of Islam, 2) Islamic Art, 3) The Islamic City, 4) Orient / Occident, 5) Islamic Science and Technology, 6) Islam Today.

American Muslims for Global Peace and Justice.

800 San Antonio Rd., Suite 1, Palo Alto, CA 94303. ( 650–856-2912.

[lobbies to change U.S. policy towards Iraq]

Islamic Foundation of America (IFA). Tel. 703–734-0221, Fax 703–734-0222.

Just World Trust / The International Movement for a Just World,

POB. 288, 46730 Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia. ( 603–7583641 / 7583727

Fax 603–7583735. : Muslims for Humanity, 166–26 89th Ave., Jamaica, NY 11432. 718–658-7028, Fax 718–658-3434. In Canada: 905–257-9997, Fax 905–257-9996.

[orphan sponsorships, shelter, education, & medical relief — worldwide].

Sisterhood is Global Institute, 4343 Montgomery Ave., Suite 201, Bethesda,

MD 20814. 301–657-4355, Fax 301–657-4381. :; Sisters in Islam. SIS Forum (Malaysia) Berhad. P.O.Box 8334

Kelana Jaya, 46787 Selangor, Malaysia. Fax 603–717 4533.

Center for Nonviolence & Human Rights / Markaz al-La‘Unf wa Huquq

al-Insan, Beirut, Lebanon ( (961–01–) 585403.

Web Sites
Arab Internet Directory. : (comprehensive).

Benevolence International Foundation. :

(projects in Bosnia, Azerbaijan, Chechnya, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, & Tajikistan; POB. 548, Worth IL 60482, ( 703–233-0062, Fax 708–233-0069) Discover Islam. : HADI, Human Assistance & Development International [an Islamic internet service] : , &

Islam-Net. : (news and views).

Islamic Relief Worldwide, POB. 6098, Burbank, CA 91510. : Middle Eastern Network Information Center, University of Texas at Austin

(part of World Wide Virtual Library). : (comprehensive, with maps)

MSA NEWS (Internet online service of the Muslim Student Association).

: [There are many useful Islamic sites mostly run by MSA chapters of American Universities; e.g., (Abdul Hafeez of Georgia); and the Safaar Page: ]

‘The Muslim Community Online’ : & (offers free web space & Email accounts to members) Muslim Peace Fellowship. :

: (variety of views, news, and commentary).

The Wisdom Fund (Islamic missionary organization; online Qur’an, Hadith,

teaching materials, & Muslim apologetics). : World Council of Muslim Women Foundation. :

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