Saturday, July 23, 2005


Goethe (1749-1832) sought to promote what he dubbed Weltliteratur by translating works from Greek, Latin, Spanish, French and English. His literary interests were not limited, however, to the European. His West-Östlicher Divan introduced the use of Persian motifs into German poetry, and sparked much interest in Hafez, who had recently been translated into Persian by the Austrian orientalist and diplomat, Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall (1774-1856).

The benefit of translations and studies of the thought and literature of other peoples was for the language and culture of the source as well as the target. German cuture benefited from Carlyle's study of Schiller as much as did English culture, for example, just as German studies of Byron and Shakespeare focused on aspects of these figures that had been missed by the English. Goethe encouraged literary salons and journals in Weimar to realize the Enlightenment ideals of tolerance and mutual understanding that could bring peace:

Diese Zeitschriften, wie sie nach und nach ein größeres Publikum gewinnen, werden zu einer gehofften allgemeinen Weltliteratur auf das Wirksamste beitragen; nur wiederholen wir, daß nicht die Rede sein könne, die Nationen sollen überein denken, sondern sie sollen nur einander gewahr werden, sich begreifen und, wenn sie sich wechselseitig nicht lieben mögen, sich einander wenigstens dulden lernen.

These journals, as they gradually attract a wider public, will be very effective in contributing towards a general world literature; but, we must reeat, that it is out of the question that nations should think alike, they should only become aware of each other, understand each other and, if they cannot love each other, should at least tolerate each other.

The quotation and translation are from H. J. Hahn, German thought and culture (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995), 86.


Blogger Phantomonline said...

Hi Dude,

following are a few taeching of my teacher.I hope u too like and understand it.May GOD bring Peace in your life too.

In the first round of the marriage ceremony, the Lord sets out His Instructions for performing the daily duties of married life. Instead of the hymns of the Vedas to Brahma, embrace the righteous conduct of Dharma, and renounce sinful actions. Meditate on the Lords Name; embrace and enshrine the contemplative remembrance of the Naam. Worship and adore the Guru, the Perfect True Guru, and all your sinful residues shall be dispelled. By great good fortune, celestial bliss is attained, and the Lord, Har, Har, seems sweet to the mind. Servant Nanak proclaims that, in this, the first round of the marriage ceremony, the marriage ceremony has begun.

1 In the second round of the marriage ceremony, the Lord leads you to meet the True Guru, the Primal Being. With the Fear of God, the Fearless Lord in the mind, the filth of egotism is eradicated. In the Fear of God, the Immaculate Lord, sing the Glorious Praises of the Lord, and behold the Lords Presence before you. The Lord, the Supreme Soul, is the Lord and Master of the Universe; He is pervading and permeating everywhere, fully filling all spaces. Deep within, and outside as well, there is only the One Lord God. Meeting together, the humble servants of the Lord sing the songs of joy. Servant Nanak proclaims that, in this, the second round of the marriage ceremony, the unstruck sound current of the Shabad resounds.

2 In the third round of the marriage ceremony, the mind is filled with Divine Love. Meeting with the humble Saints of the Lord, I have found the Lord, by great good fortune. I have found the Immaculate Lord, and I sing the Glorious Praises of the Lord. I speak the Word of the Lords Bani. By great good fortune, I have found the humble Saints, and I speak the Unspoken Speech of the Lord. The Name of the Lord, Har, Har, Har, vibrates and resounds within my heart; meditating on the Lord, I have realized the destiny inscribed upon my forehead. Servant Nanak proclaims that, in this, the third round of the marriage ceremony, the mind is filled with Divine Love for the Lord.

3 In the fourth round of the marriage ceremony, my mind has become peaceful; I have found the Lord. As Gurmukh, I have met Him, with intuitive ease; the Lord seems so sweet to my mind and body. The Lord seems so sweet; I am pleasing to my God. Night and day, I lovingly focus my consciousness on the Lord. I have obtained my Lord and Master, the fruit of my minds desires. The Lords Name resounds and resonates. The Lord God, my Lord and Master, blends with His bride, and her heart blossoms forth in the Naam. Servant Nanak proclaims that, in this, the fourth round of the marriage ceremony, we have found the Eternal Lord God. 4 2

23 July, 2005 10:50  

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